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India

India is the second most populous country on our planet, and home to an abundance of languages and cultures. This sub-continental country takes up a vast portion of Southern Asia, next to its former united brothers, Pakistan and Bangladesh, and the island of Sri Lanka to the South. 


The subcontinent's history is a story of numerous civilisations, empires, religions and spiritualities. This eclectic melting pot has made India hugely significant in human history. It was under British domination for around 200 years until the official end of colonial rule on the 15th of August 1947.  India is the most populous democracy in the world and is now emerging as a global superpower. 


Religious tensions and regional disparities have undermined the march of progress in India which is still working its way toward a functioning model for 1.3 billion people to live together in perfect harmony. In the meantime, vast economic and social reforms have put the country on the path to industrialisation and ‘classic’ economic development.


In 2018, India passed France as the 6th largest economy in the world by GDP. With a growth rate of 7.11% in 2015, India is not slowing down any time soon. This has brought many benefits to the Indian people, such as a drastic reduction of the number of people living in extreme poverty, but has also taken a tremendous toll on the country’s incredible biological treasures, its landscape and natural resources.


India experienced economic growth between the 1980s and 2000s. It is one of the "big four" BRIC countries (along with Brazil, Russia and China), destined to take over the global economy due to their dynamism and size.


However, this promising development took a toll on the country’s natural resources. Rivers, forests and the great Himalayan mountain range have changed, marked by the overuse of resources and the explosion of greenhouse gas emissions. India’s massive population and concentration force its government to take climate action more seriously than it has in the past.


TOTAL POPULATION

1,290 million YEAR 2014

CO2 EMISSIONS

2,238,400 kt COUNTRY, YEAR 2014

2,516,400 kt South Asia, YEAR 2014

“A 33-35% reduction in emissions intensity by 2030, compared to 2005 levels.”

PARIS AGREEMENT TARGET

Created by potrace 1.10, written by Peter Selinger 2001-2011

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john gaffey donated € 12 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Adi Lazos donated € 22 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Juliana Medaglia donated € 20 to Fighting the Silent Disappearance of the Great Brazilian Savannah. FREDERIC ACHARD donated € 50 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Thalita Medaglia donated € 15 to Fighting the Silent Disappearance of the Great Brazilian Savannah. Katie Hereing donated € 25 to Expanding Sesi’s Bottle Refill Scheme to Make Zero Plastic Waste Shopping Mainstream in the UK. Angelica Seminara donated € 10 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Nevena Vlaykova donated € 20 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Melanie Bitto donated € 40 to Application of satellite telemetry data to better understand the breeding strategies of humpback whales in the Southern Hemisphere. 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Yordan Yordanov donated € 25 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Clara Hermansson donated € 40 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Peter Thompson donated € 10 to Environmental Protection through Greenery and Awareness Interventions in Kabul and Wardak. Vihra Dincheva donated € 30 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Kris Bertens donated € 50 to Educating Montenegro's New Generation to Break Free from Litter and Plastic. Anna Lupanova donated € 20 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Simona Dakova donated € 20 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Neicho Rahnev donated € 10 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Pavel Boev donated € 20 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Francesco Zanetto donated € 60 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Hind Alsalloom donated € 50 to Iraqi Youth Climate Change Movement. Francesca Cardani donated € 10 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Michele Frison donated € 5 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Fabio Sai donated € 5 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Paola Tresca donated € 27 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Andrea Mongiello donated € 5 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Yordan Yordanov donated € 25 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Matteo Masi donated € 15 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Massimo Sacco donated € 10 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Ananda Nidhi donated € 20 to Toranam: Strengthening Agroforestry in Andhra Pradesh. andrea borsetto donated € 15 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. ALESSIO GIANNONI donated € 25 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Yordan Yordanov donated € 25 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Laura Zorzetto donated € 15 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Rossana Mattachini donated € 20 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Elsa De Grandi donated € 5 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Noah Silver donated € 15 to Empowering Mangrove Women for a Healthy & Resilient Ecosystem. Noah Silver donated € 15 to Expanding Sesi’s Bottle Refill Scheme to Make Zero Plastic Waste Shopping Mainstream in the UK. 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CLIMATE SIGNIFICANCE

India has become one of the world’s industrial hubs in a little more than 3 decades. Electronics, naval construction, steel manufacturing and other plants have dotted the map and brought hundreds of thousands of jobs to cities that have developed too fast to provide for much of the basic services to its populations. 


India’s ability to respond to climate change challenges is compromised by poor or obsolete waste management infrastructures (human, chemical, industrial and domestic) and the magnitude of the endeavour to transition a country of this size towards sustainability, all the while acting on an imperative to preserve its biodiversity. But the population is calling for environmental change. Indian rivers and cities cannot take much more and climate casualties, from pollution, contamination and natural disasters are growing exponentially.


India, as this year’s host of World Environment Day, announced a complete ban on single-use plastic by 2022, taking a huge step towards reducing its waste and tackling the crisis the country/world is facing. If a country as large and as complex as India is able to rule out disposable plastics, it would affect the health of all of the oceans, and thus of the entire planet. That is how important India is in the fight against climate change.


Indians are rising to the challenge. Initiatives from the lush southern countryside to the mega cities that grid India are gaining traction. As they say in India, “a problem is only solved when it becomes complex”. We have found the problem. Now we need to fund the solutions.


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DATA INSIGHTS

According to the World Bank, India is classified as a lower-middle-income country.  The following plots provide an overview of India’s historic GHG emissions in perspective with global emissions, as well as the country’s relative vulnerability and preparedness to climate change.

India Greenhouse Gas Emissions

India’s timeline of total GHG emissions and the percentage change from 1990

This plot combines 3 pieces of information measured from 1990 - 2012: The bar chart indicates the volume of the country’s GHG emissions, the dotted line shows the variation of this volume compared to the baseline 1990, and the full line presents the same variation, but globally.


Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane and fluorocarbons are the main drivers of global warming. Between 1990 and 2012, the world’s emissions grew by 40%.


India’s emissions increased more than two times (116%) over the last two decades, especially between the years 2000 and 2012. This increasing trend was mainly led by high growth of energy-intensive sectors (especially the electric power industry). The energy sector is responsible for the largest share (71%) of India’s emissions, driven by a high dependence on fossil fuel electricity production (accounting for over 73% of India’s energy supply in 2014).


In 2012, India produced over 3,000 million tonnes of CO2 eq. GHG emissions. This is equivalent to the amount of CO2 being absorbed annually by 14 million km² of forest (nearly five times the size of India). Being one of the world’s top three GHG emitting countries, India has a tremendous opportunity to curb emissions (particularly in their energy sector) by transitioning into renewable technologies. (Source: WRI, World Bank, 2018)



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India Greenhouse Gas Emissions

India’s timeline of total GHG emissions and the percentage change from 1990

graph

This plot combines 3 pieces of information measured from 1990 - 2012: The bar chart indicates the volume of the country’s GHG emissions, the dotted line shows the variation of this volume compared to the baseline 1990, and the full line presents the same variation, but globally.


Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane and fluorocarbons are the main drivers of global warming. Between 1990 and 2012, the world’s emissions grew by 40%.


India’s emissions increased more than two times (116%) over the last two decades, especially between the years 2000 and 2012. This increasing trend was mainly led by high growth of energy-intensive sectors (especially the electric power industry). The energy sector is responsible for the largest share (71%) of India’s emissions, driven by a high dependence on fossil fuel electricity production (accounting for over 73% of India’s energy supply in 2014).


In 2012, India produced over 3,000 million tonnes of CO2 eq. GHG emissions. This is equivalent to the amount of CO2 being absorbed annually by 14 million km² of forest (nearly five times the size of India). Being one of the world’s top three GHG emitting countries, India has a tremendous opportunity to curb emissions (particularly in their energy sector) by transitioning into renewable technologies. (Source: WRI, World Bank, 2018)



India Climate Vulnerability and Readiness (CVRI)

India’s vulnerability and readiness to combat climate change

This graph ranks a country’s climate performance by measuring its readiness (x-axis) and its vulnerability (y-axis). Both are measured from 0 - 1 (1 being the most ready or most vulnerable). This index combines indicators of a country’s exposure to climate change and others that measure the country’s potential to withstand those shocks. 


Each dot in this plot represents a country. The countries in most urgent situations are on the top left of the graph whilst the most resilient ones stand at the bottom right.


India is categorized as a country with high vulnerability to climate change impacts and a low level of adaptation. As agricultural is prone to climate change, extreme weather events will have significant impacts on the country’s agricultural production and food security. Climate change is expected to lead to declined rainfall that causes more extreme droughts, thereby threatening the water security of the country. Heavy rainfall caused by climate change is likely to induce floods that threaten the population living in flood-prone areas, endangering the lives of residents. (Source: ND-GAIN, 2018)


The impacts of climate change vary by country and region. But wherever you are, local-level adaptation projects are necessary. You have all the cards in hand, now go explore our live projects and be one of the good guys. 


TAKE ACTION

India Climate Vulnerability and Readiness (CVRI)

India’s vulnerability and readiness to combat climate change

graph

This graph ranks a country’s climate performance by measuring its readiness (x-axis) and its vulnerability (y-axis). Both are measured from 0 - 1 (1 being the most ready or most vulnerable). This index combines indicators of a country’s exposure to climate change and others that measure the country’s potential to withstand those shocks. 


Each dot in this plot represents a country. The countries in most urgent situations are on the top left of the graph whilst the most resilient ones stand at the bottom right.


India is categorized as a country with high vulnerability to climate change impacts and a low level of adaptation. As agricultural is prone to climate change, extreme weather events will have significant impacts on the country’s agricultural production and food security. Climate change is expected to lead to declined rainfall that causes more extreme droughts, thereby threatening the water security of the country. Heavy rainfall caused by climate change is likely to induce floods that threaten the population living in flood-prone areas, endangering the lives of residents. (Source: ND-GAIN, 2018)


The impacts of climate change vary by country and region. But wherever you are, local-level adaptation projects are necessary. You have all the cards in hand, now go explore our live projects and be one of the good guys. 


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