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Kenya

Kenya straddles the equator in Eastern Africa, bordered by Tanzania, Uganda, South Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia and the Indian Ocean.


Across its 580 000km² ( just over the size of France), Kenya’s 48 million inhabitants live in a wide range of environments - from a humid coastline, savannah grasslands, temperate forested hills and arid plains to an equatorial climate surrounding the world’s largest tropical freshwater lake, Lake Victoria. It is a country of outstanding natural beauty, with an abundance of flora and fauna, famous national parks and several UNESCO World Heritage Sites. 


Nairobi has been Kenya’s capital since it was founded by colonial authorities in 1899. Today, it is a bustling commercial home to over 100 major international companies, two major UN offices, and nearly 3.5 million people. 


Historically, Kenya has been a melting pot of African, Afroasiatic and Arabic cultures - and inhabited by humans as far back as the Lower Paleolithic period. The British Empire arrived in the 19th Century, and established control in 1895. Kenya gained independence in 1963, although it remains a Commonwealth nation to this day. The country’s recent history has been one of relatively stable democracy, although there have been periods of political violence exacerbated by the geographical and ethnic diversity of Kenyan politics (such as the 2007-8 crisis after the December 2007 presidential election). 


Over the years, Kenya’s economic development has been hampered by corruption and governance issues. Agriculture accounts for about 25% of the country’s GDP. However, President Kenyatta (now in his 2nd term), has stressed his commitment to developing universal healthcare, food security, affordable housing and an expansion in manufacturing. Since 2007, the Vision 2030 development program has been working to boost Kenya to the ranks of the Asian Economic Tigers. The awareness of climate change is part of this movement. 


TOTAL POPULATION

46 million YEAR 2014

CO2 EMISSIONS

14,300 kt COUNTRY, YEAR 2014

822,800 kt Sub-Saharan Africa, YEAR 2014

“To abate its GHG emissions by 30% by 2030 relative to the business-as-usual scenario.”


PARIS AGREEMENT TARGET

Created by potrace 1.10, written by Peter Selinger 2001-2011

KENYA | ALL PROJECTS

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john gaffey donated € 12 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Adi Lazos donated € 22 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Juliana Medaglia donated € 20 to Fighting the Silent Disappearance of the Great Brazilian Savannah. FREDERIC ACHARD donated € 50 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Thalita Medaglia donated € 15 to Fighting the Silent Disappearance of the Great Brazilian Savannah. Katie Hereing donated € 25 to Expanding Sesi’s Bottle Refill Scheme to Make Zero Plastic Waste Shopping Mainstream in the UK. Angelica Seminara donated € 10 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Nevena Vlaykova donated € 20 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Melanie Bitto donated € 40 to Application of satellite telemetry data to better understand the breeding strategies of humpback whales in the Southern Hemisphere. Cristiano Rocco Marra donated € 30 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Ro Leaver donated € 30 to Expanding Sesi’s Bottle Refill Scheme to Make Zero Plastic Waste Shopping Mainstream in the UK. Phili Denning donated € 25 to Expanding Sesi’s Bottle Refill Scheme to Make Zero Plastic Waste Shopping Mainstream in the UK. Isabel gregory donated € 20 to Expanding Sesi’s Bottle Refill Scheme to Make Zero Plastic Waste Shopping Mainstream in the UK. Akshay Pai donated € 50 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Emma Burnett donated € 50 to Expanding Sesi’s Bottle Refill Scheme to Make Zero Plastic Waste Shopping Mainstream in the UK. Boyan Mihaylov donated € 50 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. François Leclerc donated € 40 to Application of satellite telemetry data to better understand the breeding strategies of humpback whales in the Southern Hemisphere. Yordan Yordanov donated € 25 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Clara Hermansson donated € 40 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Peter Thompson donated € 10 to Environmental Protection through Greenery and Awareness Interventions in Kabul and Wardak. Vihra Dincheva donated € 30 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Kris Bertens donated € 50 to Educating Montenegro's New Generation to Break Free from Litter and Plastic. Anna Lupanova donated € 20 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Simona Dakova donated € 20 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Neicho Rahnev donated € 10 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Pavel Boev donated € 20 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Francesco Zanetto donated € 60 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Hind Alsalloom donated € 50 to Iraqi Youth Climate Change Movement. Francesca Cardani donated € 10 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Michele Frison donated € 5 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Fabio Sai donated € 5 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Paola Tresca donated € 27 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Andrea Mongiello donated € 5 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Yordan Yordanov donated € 25 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Matteo Masi donated € 15 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Massimo Sacco donated € 10 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Ananda Nidhi donated € 20 to Toranam: Strengthening Agroforestry in Andhra Pradesh. andrea borsetto donated € 15 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. ALESSIO GIANNONI donated € 25 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Yordan Yordanov donated € 25 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Laura Zorzetto donated € 15 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Rossana Mattachini donated € 20 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Elsa De Grandi donated € 5 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Noah Silver donated € 15 to Empowering Mangrove Women for a Healthy & Resilient Ecosystem. Noah Silver donated € 15 to Expanding Sesi’s Bottle Refill Scheme to Make Zero Plastic Waste Shopping Mainstream in the UK. Noah Silver donated € 15 to Agro Eco Village Project in Ri-Bhoi District. Noah Silver donated € 15 to Building an Efficient Technology for Women's Economic Empowerment. Noah Silver donated € 15 to Strengthening Malian Forest Management to Protect Biodiversity and Alleviate Poverty. Noah Silver donated € 30 to Toxic Chemicals and Waste Sensitization for Vulnerable Communities. Stefania Butera donated € 25 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles.

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CLIMATE SIGNIFICANCE

Kenya is known all over the world to host one of the largest biodiversity reservoirs on the African continent. 35,000 species make up the vast array of ecosystems, from the coastal forests to the bushy savanna in the hinterland. 80% of Kenyans rely directly or indirectly on biodiversity for their survival. However, Kenya’s environment has suffered from economic growth and the rapid urbanisation of the country. 

A big problem is the pollution of waterways, whether in rivers or the numerous large lakes that are a major part of the biodiversity and ecosystems. Primarily, the pollution derives from urban and industrial centres in the form of waste, but also as pesticides and fertilisers from agricultural activities. 

The country as a whole suffers from extreme weather events between the dry and wet seasons. There are recurring droughts and flooding, which each contribute to the problems of desertification and soil erosion. Poaching is a growing problem in the country who prides itself for its staple African fauna such as lions, zebras, hippopotamus, giraffes, rhinos, leopards, all of which are endangered.

In March 2013, the National Climate Change Action Plan (NCCAP) was launched with the goal of guiding low-carbon and climate resilient development for the country. Kenya has developed a comprehensive climate action plan, recognising the impending dangers linked to global warming. It has already implemented strong measures, such as the world’s toughest ban on disposable plastic bags. Offenders risk 4 years jail time and a $40,000 fine. Kenya has made it clear that climate action is one of its pathways to development. Can you help it make it happen?


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DATA INSIGHTS

According to the World Bank classification, Kenya is a lower middle-income country. It is useful to observe its history of carbon emissions and exposure to climate risk to contextualise Kenya’s position in the fight against climate change. The plots provide an overview of Kenya’s historic greenhouse gas emissions in comparison with global emission levels, as well as the country’s relative vulnerability and prepared status to combat climate change. 

Kenya Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Kenya’s timeline of total GHG emissions and the percentage change from 1990

This plot combines 3 pieces of information measured from 1990 - 2012: The bar chart indicates the volume of the country’s GHG emissions, the dotted line shows the variation of this volume compared to the baseline 1990, and the full line presents the same variation, but globally.


Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane and fluorocarbons are the main drivers of global warming. Between 1990 and 2012, the world’s emissions grew by 40%.


Overall, Kenya’s GHG emissions increased by 39% between 1990 and 2012. In Kenya, the agriculture sector represents the main source of emissions (60%). Within the agriculture sector, the majority of emissions come from methane produced by livestock digestion and manure. Due to recent growth in transportation energy use, CO2 emissions from combusting petroleum fuels have also increased in Kenya. 


Despite a strong growth in emissions, Kenya is only a small contributor (1%) to GHG emissions in Sub-Saharan Africa. To further reduce the country’s part, Kenya aims to reinforce its agricultural efficiency and waste management capabilities. (Source: WRI, 2018; World Bank, 2018)


TAKE ACTION

Kenya Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Kenya’s timeline of total GHG emissions and the percentage change from 1990

graph

This plot combines 3 pieces of information measured from 1990 - 2012: The bar chart indicates the volume of the country’s GHG emissions, the dotted line shows the variation of this volume compared to the baseline 1990, and the full line presents the same variation, but globally.


Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane and fluorocarbons are the main drivers of global warming. Between 1990 and 2012, the world’s emissions grew by 40%.


Overall, Kenya’s GHG emissions increased by 39% between 1990 and 2012. In Kenya, the agriculture sector represents the main source of emissions (60%). Within the agriculture sector, the majority of emissions come from methane produced by livestock digestion and manure. Due to recent growth in transportation energy use, CO2 emissions from combusting petroleum fuels have also increased in Kenya. 


Despite a strong growth in emissions, Kenya is only a small contributor (1%) to GHG emissions in Sub-Saharan Africa. To further reduce the country’s part, Kenya aims to reinforce its agricultural efficiency and waste management capabilities. (Source: WRI, 2018; World Bank, 2018)


Climate Vulnerability and Readiness (CVRI) per country

Kenya’s vulnerability and readiness to combat climate change

This graph ranks a country’s climate performance by measuring its readiness (x-axis) and its vulnerability (y-axis). Both are measured from 0 - 1 (1 being the most ready or most vulnerable). This index combines indicators of a country’s exposure to climate change and others that measure the country’s potential to withstand those shocks. 


Each dot in this plot represents a country. The countries in most urgent situations are on the top left of the graph whilst the most resilient ones stand at the bottom right.


Kenya is a country with a high vulnerability to climate change and a low level of adaptation. Agriculture is, of course, highly vulnerable to climate change and changing weather. Water resources like groundwater levels are under threat leading to longer drought periods, potentially paralysing the agricultural capacity and food security of the country. A rise in temperature due to climate change also increases vulnerability in forests and biodiversity. (Source: ND-GAIN, 2018)


The impacts of climate change vary by country and region. But wherever you are, local-level adaptation projects are necessary. You have all the cards in hand, now be one of the good guys! 


TAKE ACTION

Climate Vulnerability and Readiness (CVRI) per country

Kenya’s vulnerability and readiness to combat climate change

graph

This graph ranks a country’s climate performance by measuring its readiness (x-axis) and its vulnerability (y-axis). Both are measured from 0 - 1 (1 being the most ready or most vulnerable). This index combines indicators of a country’s exposure to climate change and others that measure the country’s potential to withstand those shocks. 


Each dot in this plot represents a country. The countries in most urgent situations are on the top left of the graph whilst the most resilient ones stand at the bottom right.


Kenya is a country with a high vulnerability to climate change and a low level of adaptation. Agriculture is, of course, highly vulnerable to climate change and changing weather. Water resources like groundwater levels are under threat leading to longer drought periods, potentially paralysing the agricultural capacity and food security of the country. A rise in temperature due to climate change also increases vulnerability in forests and biodiversity. (Source: ND-GAIN, 2018)


The impacts of climate change vary by country and region. But wherever you are, local-level adaptation projects are necessary. You have all the cards in hand, now be one of the good guys! 


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