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Niger

Niger is a Sahelo-Saharan landlocked country named after the largest river of West Africa. Its geography divides into three big areas. The Northern part (80% of its territory) lies in the Sahara desert. The second is part of the Sahel strip, a semi-arid and prone-to-droughts transitional zone between the desert and the tropical rainforest. Its southern part, where the capital Niamey lies, is much more humid and thus concentrates the majority of the population.


Niger is bordered by Libya to the northeast, Nigeria and Benin to the south, Burkina Faso and Algeria to the northwest. Niger covers a land area of 1,200,000 km2, making it the largest country in West Africa. It was formerly at the centre of French West Africa, a colonial entity supposed to organise the French rule in this part of the world. It had previously been part of the powerful and extensive trading empires of the Berbers. Niger became independent from France in 1960. 


Desertification and an extremely arid climate are responsible for this low development. A significant part of the economy relies on the country’s large resources in Uranium. It accounts for 72% of Niger’s exports and exposes it to fluctuations in the market price. It has also started exploiting oil fields in the Sahara in 2011. Nonetheless, a vast majority of the population relies on subsistence agriculture and herding for its day-to-day livelihood.


Because of this, a migration movement from the nomadic populations of the deserts (the elusive touareg and bedouins) to the cities caused clashes between different ethnicities of the country. Internal and regional extremism have prospered over these tensions and the impossibility to control the vast expanses of desert.


The rampant desertification of formerly grazing grounds is expected to continue in the foreseeable future. About half of the population of the country is under 15 years old. This generation will grow up with climate change, and the stability of Niger depends on its capacity to respond to the climate-related challenges of today and tomorrow. 


TOTAL POPULATION

19.1 million YEAR 2014

CO2 EMISSIONS

2,100 kt COUNTRY, YEAR 2014

822,800 kt Sub-Saharan Africa, YEAR 2014

“A Conditional reduction of 25% compared to Business as Usual in 2020 and 34.6% in 2030”

PARIS AGREEMENT TARGET

Created by potrace 1.10, written by Peter Selinger 2001-2011

NIGER | ALL PROJECTS

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john gaffey donated € 12 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Adi Lazos donated € 22 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Juliana Medaglia donated € 20 to Fighting the Silent Disappearance of the Great Brazilian Savannah. FREDERIC ACHARD donated € 50 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Thalita Medaglia donated € 15 to Fighting the Silent Disappearance of the Great Brazilian Savannah. Katie Hereing donated € 25 to Expanding Sesi’s Bottle Refill Scheme to Make Zero Plastic Waste Shopping Mainstream in the UK. Angelica Seminara donated € 10 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Nevena Vlaykova donated € 20 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Melanie Bitto donated € 40 to Application of satellite telemetry data to better understand the breeding strategies of humpback whales in the Southern Hemisphere. Cristiano Rocco Marra donated € 30 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Ro Leaver donated € 30 to Expanding Sesi’s Bottle Refill Scheme to Make Zero Plastic Waste Shopping Mainstream in the UK. Phili Denning donated € 25 to Expanding Sesi’s Bottle Refill Scheme to Make Zero Plastic Waste Shopping Mainstream in the UK. Isabel gregory donated € 20 to Expanding Sesi’s Bottle Refill Scheme to Make Zero Plastic Waste Shopping Mainstream in the UK. Akshay Pai donated € 50 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Emma Burnett donated € 50 to Expanding Sesi’s Bottle Refill Scheme to Make Zero Plastic Waste Shopping Mainstream in the UK. Boyan Mihaylov donated € 50 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. François Leclerc donated € 40 to Application of satellite telemetry data to better understand the breeding strategies of humpback whales in the Southern Hemisphere. Yordan Yordanov donated € 25 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Clara Hermansson donated € 40 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Peter Thompson donated € 10 to Environmental Protection through Greenery and Awareness Interventions in Kabul and Wardak. Vihra Dincheva donated € 30 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Kris Bertens donated € 50 to Educating Montenegro's New Generation to Break Free from Litter and Plastic. Anna Lupanova donated € 20 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Simona Dakova donated € 20 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Neicho Rahnev donated € 10 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Pavel Boev donated € 20 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Francesco Zanetto donated € 60 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Hind Alsalloom donated € 50 to Iraqi Youth Climate Change Movement. Francesca Cardani donated € 10 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Michele Frison donated € 5 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Fabio Sai donated € 5 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Paola Tresca donated € 27 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Andrea Mongiello donated € 5 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Yordan Yordanov donated € 25 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Matteo Masi donated € 15 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Massimo Sacco donated € 10 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Ananda Nidhi donated € 20 to Toranam: Strengthening Agroforestry in Andhra Pradesh. andrea borsetto donated € 15 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. ALESSIO GIANNONI donated € 25 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Yordan Yordanov donated € 25 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Laura Zorzetto donated € 15 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Rossana Mattachini donated € 20 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Elsa De Grandi donated € 5 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Noah Silver donated € 15 to Empowering Mangrove Women for a Healthy & Resilient Ecosystem. Noah Silver donated € 15 to Expanding Sesi’s Bottle Refill Scheme to Make Zero Plastic Waste Shopping Mainstream in the UK. Noah Silver donated € 15 to Agro Eco Village Project in Ri-Bhoi District. Noah Silver donated € 15 to Building an Efficient Technology for Women's Economic Empowerment. Noah Silver donated € 15 to Strengthening Malian Forest Management to Protect Biodiversity and Alleviate Poverty. Noah Silver donated € 30 to Toxic Chemicals and Waste Sensitization for Vulnerable Communities. Stefania Butera donated € 25 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles.

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CLIMATE SIGNIFICANCE

Niger faces an accelerated rate of desertification of its land. The combined effects of drought, deforestation for grazing and crops, and the natural progress of the desert, the country’s sandy areas has increased by 24%. Combined with a rapid population growth of 24%, it faces a direct danger from water and food insecurity. 

Niger is part of the Great Green Belt of Africa initiative, a multilateral action initiated in 2002 to plant millions of trees and stop the advance of the Sahara. This idea was first developed in the 60s but met with receptiveness only 40 years later, when the effects of the galloping desertification were felt as far the Southern capitals of the concerned countries.

Droughts and water insecurity are also a big challenge for the Nigerian population. More than $70 million are lost to droughts and floods. This is a huge problem for an economy that has not got the means to prepare and adapt to its changing climatic setting.

Niger has phrased ambitious objectives in carbon emissions reduction. Its reforestation programme combined to modernisation efforts in both cities and rural areas need to be met with international support. The race has already started and we have some catching up to do. 


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DATA INSIGHTS

The World Bank classification categorises Niger as a low-income country. Niger’s position in the fight against climate change is better understood by looking at its history of carbon emissions and exposure to climate risk. The plots show Niger’s historic greenhouse gas emissions in perspective with global emission levels, as well as the country’s relative vulnerability and preparedness to climate change.


Niger Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Niger’s timeline of total GHG emissions and the percentage change from 1990

This plot combines 3 pieces of information measured from 1990 - 2012: The bar chart indicates the volume of the country’s GHG emissions, the dotted line shows the variation of this volume compared to the baseline 1990, and the full line presents the same variation, but globally.


Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane and fluorocarbons are the main drivers of global warming. Between 1990 and 2012, the world’s emissions grew by 40%.


From 1990 to 2000, Niger’s emissions significantly increased by 61%, driven by increased emissions from the expansion of agricultural activities and livestock production. Overall, Niger’s GHG emissions increased by 65% between 1990 and 2012. In Niger, the agriculture sector is responsible for the largest share (78%) of the country’s emissions, mainly due to methane emissions from livestock.


Despite a strong growth in emissions, Niger is only a small contributor to 2012 GHG emissions in Sub-Saharan Africa. Farming practices to improving manure management and sustainable agriculture systems still present a challenge in the future but will reduce the country’s emissions. (Source: WRI, 2018; World bank, 2018)


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Niger Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Niger’s timeline of total GHG emissions and the percentage change from 1990

graph

This plot combines 3 pieces of information measured from 1990 - 2012: The bar chart indicates the volume of the country’s GHG emissions, the dotted line shows the variation of this volume compared to the baseline 1990, and the full line presents the same variation, but globally.


Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane and fluorocarbons are the main drivers of global warming. Between 1990 and 2012, the world’s emissions grew by 40%.


From 1990 to 2000, Niger’s emissions significantly increased by 61%, driven by increased emissions from the expansion of agricultural activities and livestock production. Overall, Niger’s GHG emissions increased by 65% between 1990 and 2012. In Niger, the agriculture sector is responsible for the largest share (78%) of the country’s emissions, mainly due to methane emissions from livestock.


Despite a strong growth in emissions, Niger is only a small contributor to 2012 GHG emissions in Sub-Saharan Africa. Farming practices to improving manure management and sustainable agriculture systems still present a challenge in the future but will reduce the country’s emissions. (Source: WRI, 2018; World bank, 2018)


Niger Climate Vulnerability and Readiness (CVRI)

Niger’s vulnerability and readiness to combat climate change

This graph ranks a country’s climate performance by measuring its readiness (x-axis) and its vulnerability (y-axis). Both are measured from 0 - 1 (1 being the most ready or most vulnerable). This index combines indicators of a country’s exposure to climate change and others that measure the country’s potential to withstand those shocks. 


Each dot in this plot represents a country. The countries in most urgent situations are on the top left of the graph whilst the most resilient ones stand at the bottom right. 


Niger is categorised as a country with high vulnerability to climate change impacts and a low level of adaptation capacity. Agricultural production is expected to decline significantly under projected climate change. The decrease in precipitation will lead to longer drought periods, diminishing the agricultural capacity and food security of the country. A rise in temperature due to climate change also increases the vulnerability of forests and biodiversity on the territory. (Source: ND-GAIN, 2018)


The impacts of climate change vary by country and region. But wherever you are, local-level adaptation projects are necessary. You have all the cards in hand, now go explore our live projects and be one of the good guys. 


TAKE ACTION

Niger Climate Vulnerability and Readiness (CVRI)

Niger’s vulnerability and readiness to combat climate change

graph

This graph ranks a country’s climate performance by measuring its readiness (x-axis) and its vulnerability (y-axis). Both are measured from 0 - 1 (1 being the most ready or most vulnerable). This index combines indicators of a country’s exposure to climate change and others that measure the country’s potential to withstand those shocks. 


Each dot in this plot represents a country. The countries in most urgent situations are on the top left of the graph whilst the most resilient ones stand at the bottom right. 


Niger is categorised as a country with high vulnerability to climate change impacts and a low level of adaptation capacity. Agricultural production is expected to decline significantly under projected climate change. The decrease in precipitation will lead to longer drought periods, diminishing the agricultural capacity and food security of the country. A rise in temperature due to climate change also increases the vulnerability of forests and biodiversity on the territory. (Source: ND-GAIN, 2018)


The impacts of climate change vary by country and region. But wherever you are, local-level adaptation projects are necessary. You have all the cards in hand, now go explore our live projects and be one of the good guys. 


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