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Nigeria

Nigeria is a West African country that became independent from the UK in 1960. It is the 14th biggest African country by size at 923,763 km², almost four times the size of UK, and the most populous on the continent. Nigeria open to the Atlantic on the Gulf of Guinea in the South. It shares borders with Benin, Niger and Cameroon.


There are over 300 ethnicities speaking 250+ languages in Nigeria, making it incredibly culturally diverse. This wealth of cultures translates into a vibrant musical and dance scene from the afro-beat of the Kuti family to the modern electro coming out of Lagos today. Its terrain is as diverse as its people, encompassing wetlands, tropical rainforests and grass plateaux. 


Nigeria has vast oil resources and is the 12th biggest producer in the world. The revenue this industry generated grew exponentially, financing the military junta during the 1970s and subsequent governments since. Today, oil accounts for 79% of Nigerian exports, and as much as 66% of government revenues. 


The Nigerian economy is a multifaceted and dynamic system that includes a strong agriculture, a booming fashion industry and a growing high-tech market. Development has been very uneven, varying greatly from one region to another, and sometimes at an even more granular level between communities. 


Oil fields are located almost exclusively in the Niger Delta, to the South of the country. The region is scattered with over 1000 small-scale refineries that are having a major impact on this ecosystem, which has one of the highest levels of biodiversity on the planet. Spills are very common due to the cobbled-together nature of the refineries, with 9-13 million barrels lost since 1958. The impact on the environment is, of course, disastrous. 


Over recent years, ethnic tensions and fundamentalism have resurged, predominantly in the north of the country to challenge the domination of the coastal region and the underdevelopment of the rest of the country. Political, developmental and environmental issues in the country are tightly intertwined. As one of the leaders of the African continent and a booming population and economy, Nigeria has the potential to be the locomotive of West Africa in sustainability and efficient development.


TOTAL POPULATION

176.5 million YEAR 2014

CO2 EMISSIONS

96,300 kt COUNTRY, YEAR 2014

822,800 kt Sub-Saharan Africa, YEAR 2014

“An unconditional 20% reduction in emissions by 2030 compared to business-as-usual levels.”

PARIS AGREEMENT TARGET

Created by potrace 1.10, written by Peter Selinger 2001-2011

NIGERIA | ALL PROJECTS

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john gaffey donated € 12 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Adi Lazos donated € 22 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Juliana Medaglia donated € 20 to Fighting the Silent Disappearance of the Great Brazilian Savannah. FREDERIC ACHARD donated € 50 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Thalita Medaglia donated € 15 to Fighting the Silent Disappearance of the Great Brazilian Savannah. Katie Hereing donated € 25 to Expanding Sesi’s Bottle Refill Scheme to Make Zero Plastic Waste Shopping Mainstream in the UK. Angelica Seminara donated € 10 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Nevena Vlaykova donated € 20 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Melanie Bitto donated € 40 to Application of satellite telemetry data to better understand the breeding strategies of humpback whales in the Southern Hemisphere. Cristiano Rocco Marra donated € 30 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Ro Leaver donated € 30 to Expanding Sesi’s Bottle Refill Scheme to Make Zero Plastic Waste Shopping Mainstream in the UK. Phili Denning donated € 25 to Expanding Sesi’s Bottle Refill Scheme to Make Zero Plastic Waste Shopping Mainstream in the UK. Isabel gregory donated € 20 to Expanding Sesi’s Bottle Refill Scheme to Make Zero Plastic Waste Shopping Mainstream in the UK. Akshay Pai donated € 50 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Emma Burnett donated € 50 to Expanding Sesi’s Bottle Refill Scheme to Make Zero Plastic Waste Shopping Mainstream in the UK. Boyan Mihaylov donated € 50 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. François Leclerc donated € 40 to Application of satellite telemetry data to better understand the breeding strategies of humpback whales in the Southern Hemisphere. Yordan Yordanov donated € 25 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Clara Hermansson donated € 40 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Peter Thompson donated € 10 to Environmental Protection through Greenery and Awareness Interventions in Kabul and Wardak. Vihra Dincheva donated € 30 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Kris Bertens donated € 50 to Educating Montenegro's New Generation to Break Free from Litter and Plastic. Anna Lupanova donated € 20 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Simona Dakova donated € 20 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Neicho Rahnev donated € 10 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Pavel Boev donated € 20 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Francesco Zanetto donated € 60 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Hind Alsalloom donated € 50 to Iraqi Youth Climate Change Movement. Francesca Cardani donated € 10 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Michele Frison donated € 5 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Fabio Sai donated € 5 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Paola Tresca donated € 27 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Andrea Mongiello donated € 5 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Yordan Yordanov donated € 25 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Matteo Masi donated € 15 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Massimo Sacco donated € 10 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Ananda Nidhi donated € 20 to Toranam: Strengthening Agroforestry in Andhra Pradesh. andrea borsetto donated € 15 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. ALESSIO GIANNONI donated € 25 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Yordan Yordanov donated € 25 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Laura Zorzetto donated € 15 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Rossana Mattachini donated € 20 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Elsa De Grandi donated € 5 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Noah Silver donated € 15 to Empowering Mangrove Women for a Healthy & Resilient Ecosystem. Noah Silver donated € 15 to Expanding Sesi’s Bottle Refill Scheme to Make Zero Plastic Waste Shopping Mainstream in the UK. Noah Silver donated € 15 to Agro Eco Village Project in Ri-Bhoi District. Noah Silver donated € 15 to Building an Efficient Technology for Women's Economic Empowerment. Noah Silver donated € 15 to Strengthening Malian Forest Management to Protect Biodiversity and Alleviate Poverty. Noah Silver donated € 30 to Toxic Chemicals and Waste Sensitization for Vulnerable Communities. Stefania Butera donated € 25 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles.

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CLIMATE SIGNIFICANCE

Nigeria’s economic welfare is tightly linked with the welfare of its natural resources, and the stability of its climate. Around 70% of the population is employed in the agriculture sector (mainly in fields and fishing).

The Niger Delta is one of the most precious and endangered zones in the world. It is home to various ecosystems like mangroves or wetlands (the largest in the whole of Africa), which together form a complex of 30,000+ species. These include West African lions, lowland gorillas and more than 1,800 butterflies. Yet, the lack of environmental considerations from both the government and the oil companies have considerably polluted and damaged this region’s natural treasures.

Only 3.6% of Nigeria’s territory falls under some sort of governmental protection, none of which are found in the Niger Delta. Between 1990 and 2005, Nigeria lost 35% of its forest cover, or around 6,145,000 hectares (or 12 million football fields). 

Destruction of rainforests, mangroves and other forested lands is not only reducing the carbon sink capacity of the country but also causing severe soil erosion, as denoted by the growing gully erosion crisis costing millions of euros in damage to the country’s infrastructure. These various woods host more than 290 mammals species and countless birds, lizards and invertebrates.

Ways of life that were adapted to their natural settings are changing fast because of climate change. This change expresses itself socially, politically and environmentally. As Nigeria is taking off, it also takes on the costs of such fast-paced evolutions. Natural resources must be weighed in as part of this new deal. If not, their disappearance could also mark the end of the “Super Eagles” country’s boom. 


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DATA INSIGHTS

According to the World Bank classification, Nigeria is a lower middle-income country. The history of carbon emissions and exposure to climate risk provides useful insights into Nigeria's position in the fight against climate change. The following graphs provide an overview of Nigeria’s historic greenhouse gas emissions in perspective with global emission levels, as well as the country’s relative vulnerability and preparedness to climate change.

Nigeria Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Nigeria’s timeline of total GHG emissions and the percentage change from 1990

This plot combines 3 pieces of information measured from 1990 - 2012: The bar chart indicates the volume of the country’s GHG emissions, the dotted line shows the variation of this volume compared to the baseline 1990, and the full line presents the same variation, but globally.


Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane and fluorocarbons are the main drivers of global warming. Between 1990 and 2012, the world’s emissions grew by 40%.


Nigeria’s emissions have almost doubled (rising by 93%) between 1990 and 2000. Methane and CO2 emissions during the 1990s have contributed to this trend. In the later years, emissions were quite stagnant. However, between 2008 and 2009, a sharp decline in emissions was observed. Methane emissions in the energy and agricultural sector declined during this period. Overall, Nigeria’s emissions have increased by 82% between 1990 and 2012. 


In 2014, emissions from land-use change and forestry (like clearing forests for agriculture practices and open burning of biomass) led overall emission at 38%. Following was energy (32%), waste (14%), and agriculture (13%). Agriculture and energy are two key sectors contributing to the Nigerian economy and are causing significant environmental damage. (Source: WRI, 2018; World Bank, 2018)

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Nigeria Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Nigeria’s timeline of total GHG emissions and the percentage change from 1990

graph

This plot combines 3 pieces of information measured from 1990 - 2012: The bar chart indicates the volume of the country’s GHG emissions, the dotted line shows the variation of this volume compared to the baseline 1990, and the full line presents the same variation, but globally.


Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane and fluorocarbons are the main drivers of global warming. Between 1990 and 2012, the world’s emissions grew by 40%.


Nigeria’s emissions have almost doubled (rising by 93%) between 1990 and 2000. Methane and CO2 emissions during the 1990s have contributed to this trend. In the later years, emissions were quite stagnant. However, between 2008 and 2009, a sharp decline in emissions was observed. Methane emissions in the energy and agricultural sector declined during this period. Overall, Nigeria’s emissions have increased by 82% between 1990 and 2012. 


In 2014, emissions from land-use change and forestry (like clearing forests for agriculture practices and open burning of biomass) led overall emission at 38%. Following was energy (32%), waste (14%), and agriculture (13%). Agriculture and energy are two key sectors contributing to the Nigerian economy and are causing significant environmental damage. (Source: WRI, 2018; World Bank, 2018)

Nigeria Climate Vulnerability and Readiness (CVRI)

Nigeria’s vulnerability and readiness to combat climate change

This graph ranks a country’s climate performance by measuring its readiness (x-axis) and its vulnerability (y-axis). Both are measured from 0 - 1 (1 being the most ready or most vulnerable). This index combines indicators of a country’s exposure to climate change and others that measure the country’s potential to withstand those shocks. 


Each dot in this plot represents a country. The countries in most urgent situations are on the top left of the graph whilst the most resilient ones stand at the bottom right.


Nigeria is categorised as a country with high vulnerability to climate change impacts and a low level of adaptation. Cereal yields such as rice, wheat and maize are expected to be drastically reduced; Agricultural capacity is at risk threatening the food security of the country. There is an absolute need to boost the healthcare infrastructure in the country in order to effectively adapt to a changing climate. Only 60% of the population has access to electricity, and hopefully the power requirements of the growing population can be met from renewable sources. Also, coastal ecosystems of the country along with existing water resources are in high stress due to economic activities like oil extraction. (Source: ND-GAIN, 2018)


The impacts of climate change vary by country and region. But wherever you are, local-level adaptation projects are necessary. You have all the cards in hand, now go explore our live projects and be one of the good guys.


TAKE ACTION

Nigeria Climate Vulnerability and Readiness (CVRI)

Nigeria’s vulnerability and readiness to combat climate change

graph

This graph ranks a country’s climate performance by measuring its readiness (x-axis) and its vulnerability (y-axis). Both are measured from 0 - 1 (1 being the most ready or most vulnerable). This index combines indicators of a country’s exposure to climate change and others that measure the country’s potential to withstand those shocks. 


Each dot in this plot represents a country. The countries in most urgent situations are on the top left of the graph whilst the most resilient ones stand at the bottom right.


Nigeria is categorised as a country with high vulnerability to climate change impacts and a low level of adaptation. Cereal yields such as rice, wheat and maize are expected to be drastically reduced; Agricultural capacity is at risk threatening the food security of the country. There is an absolute need to boost the healthcare infrastructure in the country in order to effectively adapt to a changing climate. Only 60% of the population has access to electricity, and hopefully the power requirements of the growing population can be met from renewable sources. Also, coastal ecosystems of the country along with existing water resources are in high stress due to economic activities like oil extraction. (Source: ND-GAIN, 2018)


The impacts of climate change vary by country and region. But wherever you are, local-level adaptation projects are necessary. You have all the cards in hand, now go explore our live projects and be one of the good guys.


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NIGERIA | ALL PROJECTS

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