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Albania

Albania is a Southeastern European country on the Adriatic sea in the Balkans. It shares boundaries with Montenegro to the northwest, Kosovo to the northeast, the Republic of Macedonia to the east, and Greece to the south and southeast. Its capital Tirana is the home of 400,000 of the 3 million Albanians living in the country, and 7 million ethnic Albanians are spread throughout the Balkans and beyond.


The conquest of the Balkan peninsula by the Ottomans in the 14th and 15th centuries followed a different course in Albania. Whereas the Orthodox religion played a great role in the conservation of national cultures in the Balkans, a majority of Albanians are now Muslims and some have known some great success as part of the Ottoman empire. Albania ousted the Ottomans and declared independence in 1912. Prior to this, it had been the province of the larger Roman, Venetian or Serbian empires. 


After the Second World War, the country of Mother Teresa had to be rebuilt from the ground up. An independent Stalinist regime was implemented and firmly applied until late into the 1980s. In 1996, state-sponsored Ponzi schemes started collapsing, sparking country-wide protests and unrest. After a few skirmishes, the national police and guards deserted, leaving their armouries open. This has had ramifications up until today, with the emergence of a powerful and organised crime society prospering on arms trafficking and violence. 


Albania’s geography is rich and varied for a country of its size. From its Adriatic shores to the high altitude lakes inland, the country’s climate covers Mediterranean warmth to subarctic colds. The country runs on 95% hydroelectric power, and sits on the largest oil reserves in Europe. It also enjoys a strong and diversified economy which features agriculture, mining, energy, and manufacturing of textiles and foods. In recent years the tourism industry has boomed, with visitors flocking to the stunning Adriatic coast and Albanian Riviera in the south-west (‘the pearl of the Albanian coast’).


TOTAL POPULATION

2.9 million YEAR 2014

CO2 EMISSIONS

5,700 kt COUNTRY, YEAR 2014

6,245,900 kt Europe and Central Asia, YEAR 2014

“To reduce CO2 emissions compared to the baseline scenario in the period of 2016 and 2030 by 11.5 %”

PARIS AGREEMENT TARGET

Created by potrace 1.10, written by Peter Selinger 2001-2011

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john gaffey donated € 12 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Adi Lazos donated € 22 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Juliana Medaglia donated € 20 to Fighting the Silent Disappearance of the Great Brazilian Savannah. FREDERIC ACHARD donated € 50 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Thalita Medaglia donated € 15 to Fighting the Silent Disappearance of the Great Brazilian Savannah. Katie Hereing donated € 25 to Expanding Sesi’s Bottle Refill Scheme to Make Zero Plastic Waste Shopping Mainstream in the UK. Angelica Seminara donated € 10 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Nevena Vlaykova donated € 20 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Melanie Bitto donated € 40 to Application of satellite telemetry data to better understand the breeding strategies of humpback whales in the Southern Hemisphere. Cristiano Rocco Marra donated € 30 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Ro Leaver donated € 30 to Expanding Sesi’s Bottle Refill Scheme to Make Zero Plastic Waste Shopping Mainstream in the UK. Phili Denning donated € 25 to Expanding Sesi’s Bottle Refill Scheme to Make Zero Plastic Waste Shopping Mainstream in the UK. Isabel gregory donated € 20 to Expanding Sesi’s Bottle Refill Scheme to Make Zero Plastic Waste Shopping Mainstream in the UK. Akshay Pai donated € 50 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Emma Burnett donated € 50 to Expanding Sesi’s Bottle Refill Scheme to Make Zero Plastic Waste Shopping Mainstream in the UK. Boyan Mihaylov donated € 50 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. François Leclerc donated € 40 to Application of satellite telemetry data to better understand the breeding strategies of humpback whales in the Southern Hemisphere. Yordan Yordanov donated € 25 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Clara Hermansson donated € 40 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Peter Thompson donated € 10 to Environmental Protection through Greenery and Awareness Interventions in Kabul and Wardak. Vihra Dincheva donated € 30 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Kris Bertens donated € 50 to Educating Montenegro's New Generation to Break Free from Litter and Plastic. Anna Lupanova donated € 20 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Simona Dakova donated € 20 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Neicho Rahnev donated € 10 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Pavel Boev donated € 20 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Francesco Zanetto donated € 60 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Hind Alsalloom donated € 50 to Iraqi Youth Climate Change Movement. Francesca Cardani donated € 10 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Michele Frison donated € 5 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Fabio Sai donated € 5 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Paola Tresca donated € 27 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Andrea Mongiello donated € 5 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Yordan Yordanov donated € 25 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Matteo Masi donated € 15 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Massimo Sacco donated € 10 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Ananda Nidhi donated € 20 to Toranam: Strengthening Agroforestry in Andhra Pradesh. andrea borsetto donated € 15 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. ALESSIO GIANNONI donated € 25 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Yordan Yordanov donated € 25 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Laura Zorzetto donated € 15 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Rossana Mattachini donated € 20 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Elsa De Grandi donated € 5 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Noah Silver donated € 15 to Empowering Mangrove Women for a Healthy & Resilient Ecosystem. Noah Silver donated € 15 to Expanding Sesi’s Bottle Refill Scheme to Make Zero Plastic Waste Shopping Mainstream in the UK. 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CLIMATE SIGNIFICANCE

Albania’s nature is, for now, remarkably pristine. On the densest and most urban of continents, it has become harder and harder to find unspoiled rivers, unexplored peaks and deserted beaches. Albania has all three. The country is host to 30% of the flora and 42% of fauna species of Europe. There are 799 protected areas, with national parks covering nearly 14% of the nation’s total area. 

However, protected area status means nothing to a changing climate. Similarly to southern Europe, the most likely models predict a drop in rainfall of about 20% by 2050, leading to more frequent droughts in the country - impacting agriculture and hydroelectricity. The drought in 2007 caused a national energy shortage after partially shutting down the second largest hydropower plant. In relative terms, it was not objectively a bad drought, but the impacts were widespread and it is not a welcome sign of things to come. 

Meanwhile, Albanian rivers are under attack. Plans to build as many as 1,000 dams across the region put in immediate danger the fish stock, harm the balance of the ecosystems, and reduce the already limited flow of rivers. The rivers are also under threat from reducing precipitation and rising temperatures (which also, incidentally, impacts the effectiveness of the dams). 

The effects of deforestation and sea level increase at the Adriatic coastline are visible. In some places, the sea has progressed 50m further onto the land and the resulting increased salinity is killing off the remaining flora. The degradation of forests is still ongoing and is terrible for two reasons. First, this increases the risk of natural disasters, such as droughts, floods and landslides. Second, it means biodoversity is under increased threat from habitat loss and disruption.

Albania is not a member of the EU and therefore cannot rely as much on continental solidarity and protective legislation. It is working with the World Bank to find and implement climate change adaptation measures to protect its energy and agriculture sectors. Hopefully its beautiful nature and range of species will be considered as the country moves forward.


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DATA INSIGHTS

Albania is classified as an upper middle-income country by the World Bank. Albania's position in the fight against climate change is better understood by observing its historical of carbon emissions and exposure to climate risk. The following plots provide an overview of Albania’s historic greenhouse gas emissions in perspective with global emission levels, as well as the country’s climate action and sustainability performance.

Albania Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Albania’s timeline of total GHG emissions and the percentage change from 1990

This plot combines 3 pieces of information measured from 1990 - 2012: The bar chart indicates the volume of the country’s GHG emissions, the dotted line shows the variation of this volume compared to the baseline 1990, and the full line presents the same variation, but globally.


Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane and fluorocarbons are the main drivers of global warming. Between 1990 and 2012, the world’s emissions grew by 40%.


From 1990 to 2000, Albania saw its emissions fall by 25%, driven by a significant decline in the share of coal used for energy. However, after moderate reductions in its emissions Albania’s emissions started rising between 2009 and 2012, though still representing a 20% decrease from its 1990 level. The energy sector is responsible for the largest share (55%) of Albania’s emissions, and transportation is the leading source of energy-related emissions.


In 2012, Albania emitted nearly 9 million tonnes of CO2 eq. GHG emissions, which is ten times less than neighbouring Greece. Albania highly relies on hydropower for almost 95% of its electricity generation, but climate change events (such as droughts and heat waves) will impact its hydropower production. As such, Albania requires further efforts to promote alternative renewable energy sources. (Source: WRI, 2018; World Bank, 2018)


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Albania Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Albania’s timeline of total GHG emissions and the percentage change from 1990

graph

This plot combines 3 pieces of information measured from 1990 - 2012: The bar chart indicates the volume of the country’s GHG emissions, the dotted line shows the variation of this volume compared to the baseline 1990, and the full line presents the same variation, but globally.


Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane and fluorocarbons are the main drivers of global warming. Between 1990 and 2012, the world’s emissions grew by 40%.


From 1990 to 2000, Albania saw its emissions fall by 25%, driven by a significant decline in the share of coal used for energy. However, after moderate reductions in its emissions Albania’s emissions started rising between 2009 and 2012, though still representing a 20% decrease from its 1990 level. The energy sector is responsible for the largest share (55%) of Albania’s emissions, and transportation is the leading source of energy-related emissions.


In 2012, Albania emitted nearly 9 million tonnes of CO2 eq. GHG emissions, which is ten times less than neighbouring Greece. Albania highly relies on hydropower for almost 95% of its electricity generation, but climate change events (such as droughts and heat waves) will impact its hydropower production. As such, Albania requires further efforts to promote alternative renewable energy sources. (Source: WRI, 2018; World Bank, 2018)


Albania Sustainable Development Goals Index (SDGI)

Albania’s performance on sustainable development

The SDG Index describes a country’s progress towards achieving the 17 Sustainable Development Goals. The SDGI combines indicators of climate action with other socio-economic development measures that contextualise a country’s environmental performance with the rest of its challenges and reality. 


The global SDG Index score can be interpreted as the percentage of achievement of the goals. 


Each dot in the plot represents a country and its score (y-axis). Countries at the bottom score lower on the index as the countries at the top. Sweden currently scores the highest at 85 and the Central African Republic scores lowest at 38.


Albania’s SDG performance is below the average of Southern European countries, and there are many key issues to be addressed in Albania; for example, enhancing resilience and adaptive capacity to climate change and improving marine conservation and fisheries. (Source: SDGI, 2018) 


Albania’s score of 69 is below the average of Southern European countries, and Albania is among the few European countries to receive an SDGI score below 70. Albania performs well in the area of renewable and affordable energy as a result of a high use of hydropower for electricity generation. However, the country still falls short of addressing many aspects of sustainable development. This is mainly because Albania performs poorly on measures like safeguarding fish populations and the marine environment and increasing research and development investment for further economic growth. (Source: SDGI, 2018) 


The impacts of climate change vary by country and region. But wherever you are, local-level adaptation projects are necessary. You have all the cards in hand, now go explore our live projects and be one of the good guys.



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Albania Sustainable Development Goals Index (SDGI)

Albania’s performance on sustainable development

graph

The SDG Index describes a country’s progress towards achieving the 17 Sustainable Development Goals. The SDGI combines indicators of climate action with other socio-economic development measures that contextualise a country’s environmental performance with the rest of its challenges and reality. 


The global SDG Index score can be interpreted as the percentage of achievement of the goals. 


Each dot in the plot represents a country and its score (y-axis). Countries at the bottom score lower on the index as the countries at the top. Sweden currently scores the highest at 85 and the Central African Republic scores lowest at 38.


Albania’s SDG performance is below the average of Southern European countries, and there are many key issues to be addressed in Albania; for example, enhancing resilience and adaptive capacity to climate change and improving marine conservation and fisheries. (Source: SDGI, 2018) 


Albania’s score of 69 is below the average of Southern European countries, and Albania is among the few European countries to receive an SDGI score below 70. Albania performs well in the area of renewable and affordable energy as a result of a high use of hydropower for electricity generation. However, the country still falls short of addressing many aspects of sustainable development. This is mainly because Albania performs poorly on measures like safeguarding fish populations and the marine environment and increasing research and development investment for further economic growth. (Source: SDGI, 2018) 


The impacts of climate change vary by country and region. But wherever you are, local-level adaptation projects are necessary. You have all the cards in hand, now go explore our live projects and be one of the good guys.



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