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United Republic of Tanzania

Tanzania is a Southeast African country on the coast of the Indian Ocean. At 945,087 km², the country is about the same size as Texas. It shares borders with Uganda, Kenya, Mozambique, Malawi, Zambia, Rwanda, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. 


In 1964 Tanganyika and Zanzibar, two freshly independent states that both belonged to the British colonial empire, merged into Tanzania. With more than 130 languages spoken Tanzania has done remarkably well to live in peace and diversity.


Tanzania was the base of the Sultanate of Zanzibar, a rich commercial empire that linked European powers, Arabic trade caravans and the Indian Rajahs. The trade spice played an important part in the history of these islands. This archipelago is considered one of the best wind spots in the world, welcoming birds, sails and kitesurfers alike.


Tanzania’s leading economic sectors are agriculture, mining and tourism. The former employs half of the population and represents 85% of export values. Gold mining represents 20% of exports and tourism 17% of the country GDP. Consequently, the vast majority of the Tanzanian economy relies on natural resources and climate stability. 


TOTAL POPULATION

52.2 million YEAR 2014

CO2 EMISSIONS

11,600 kt COUNTRY, YEAR 2014

822,800 kt Sub-Saharan Africa, YEAR 2014

“A 10-20% cut in emissions by 2030, compared to business as usual, conditional on international support”

PARIS AGREEMENT TARGET

Created by potrace 1.10, written by Peter Selinger 2001-2011

UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA | ALL PROJECTS

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CLIMATE SIGNIFICANCE

Tanzania is known across the world for its incredible fauna and flora. Not only does it regroup the African “big five” (elephants, giraffes, buffaloes, lion, leopard) but 30% of its territory is protected by law. The Ngorongoro crater is said to be the place with the strongest wildlife concentration in the world.

The country hosts diverse ecosystems vastly different from one another. It regroups densely forested hills around Mount Kilimanjaro, Africa's highest mountain, whilst the islands of Zanzibar have protected reef sanctuary underwater and host the endemic red colobus monkey. The vast plains of the Serengeti are the setting of an annual migration of more than 2 million Wildebeests (also known as gnus, which you may have seen trampling Simba’s dad in the Lion King), the second largest on-land migration in the natural world. The list goes on.

The Tanzanian government has measured that extreme weather - who have become both more frequent and more intense - costs the country about a point of GDP each year. This hinders Tanzania’s development and adaptation works.

3 of the 6 African great lakes are located in part of Tanzanian soil. These lakes are of incredible significance to the natural, cultural and social essence of Africa. To give you an idea, Lake Tanganyika, from which the country derives half of its name, is the second largest lake in the world, and Lake Victoria is roughly the size of Ireland. The lakes contain cumulatively 25% of the world’s unfrozen fresh water, and sustain the livelihoods of hundreds of millions of people directly (with fishing, tourism) and indirectly (with exports, electricity, and supporting activities).

Tanzania is a net carbon sink and a minor contributor to global contributions. Even more importantly, it supports one of the greatest and most valuable wildlife heritage on planet Earth. Such havens give us hope that the fauna and flora of our world can still be preserved for future generations. 

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DATA INSIGHTS

The World Bank classifies Tanzania as a low-income country. To understand Tanzania’s position in the fight against climate change, it is useful to observe its history of carbon emissions and exposure to climate risk. The following plots provide an overview of Tanzania’s historic greenhouse gas emissions in perspective with global emission levels, as well as the country’s relative vulnerability and preparedness to climate change. 

Tanzania Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Tanzania’s timeline of total GHG emissions and the percentage change since 1990

This plot combines 3 pieces of information measured from 1990 - 2012: The bar chart indicates the volume of the country’s GHG emissions, the dotted line shows the variation of this volume compared to the baseline 1990, and the full line presents the same variation, but globally.


Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane and fluorocarbons are the main drivers of global warming. Between 1990 and 2012, the world’s emissions grew by 40%.

 

Between 1990 and 2000, Tanzania’s emissions increased by 127%, triggered by agricultural expansion including shifting cultivation and livestock production. After moderate reductions, Tanzania’s emissions increased further and grew by 148% from the 1990 level in 2012. The land-use change and forestry (LUCF) sector is responsible for the largest share (73%) of Tanzania’s emissions, followed by the agriculture sector 17%. The main causes of LUCF emissions include the expansion of agricultural land and logging for firewood and charcoal. Methane generated by livestock digestion and manure is the major contributor to Tanzania’s agricultural emissions.


In 2012, Tanzania produced over 230 million tonnes of CO2 eq. GHG emissions, which is four times more than that of its neighbouring country Kenya. To reduce its emissions, Tanzania requires more efforts such as regulating the unsustainable land use and deforestation. Moreover, as the majority of the country still relies on firewood and charcoal for cooking, introducing more efficient cooking stoves and alternative fuels will also help reduce Tanzania’s emissions. (Source: WRI, 2018; World Bank, 2018) 


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Tanzania Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Tanzania’s timeline of total GHG emissions and the percentage change since 1990

graph

This plot combines 3 pieces of information measured from 1990 - 2012: The bar chart indicates the volume of the country’s GHG emissions, the dotted line shows the variation of this volume compared to the baseline 1990, and the full line presents the same variation, but globally.


Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane and fluorocarbons are the main drivers of global warming. Between 1990 and 2012, the world’s emissions grew by 40%.

 

Between 1990 and 2000, Tanzania’s emissions increased by 127%, triggered by agricultural expansion including shifting cultivation and livestock production. After moderate reductions, Tanzania’s emissions increased further and grew by 148% from the 1990 level in 2012. The land-use change and forestry (LUCF) sector is responsible for the largest share (73%) of Tanzania’s emissions, followed by the agriculture sector 17%. The main causes of LUCF emissions include the expansion of agricultural land and logging for firewood and charcoal. Methane generated by livestock digestion and manure is the major contributor to Tanzania’s agricultural emissions.


In 2012, Tanzania produced over 230 million tonnes of CO2 eq. GHG emissions, which is four times more than that of its neighbouring country Kenya. To reduce its emissions, Tanzania requires more efforts such as regulating the unsustainable land use and deforestation. Moreover, as the majority of the country still relies on firewood and charcoal for cooking, introducing more efficient cooking stoves and alternative fuels will also help reduce Tanzania’s emissions. (Source: WRI, 2018; World Bank, 2018) 


Tanzania Climate Vulnerability and Readiness (CVRI)

Tanzania’s vulnerability and readiness to combat climate change

This graph ranks a country’s climate performance by measuring its readiness (x-axis) and its vulnerability (y-axis). Both are measured from 0 - 1 (1 being the most ready or most vulnerable). This index combines indicators of a country’s exposure to climate change and others that measure the country’s potential to withstand those shocks. 


Each dot in this plot represents a country. The countries in most urgent situations are on the top left of the graph whilst the most resilient ones stand at the bottom right. 


Tanzania is categorised as a country with high vulnerability to climate change and a low level of adaptation. Climate change is expected to lead to declined rainfall that causes more extreme droughts, thereby threatening the water security of the country. Due to changes in temperature and precipitation patterns, crop yields are expected to decrease significantly, which will result in a severe food crisis, famine and malnutrition. The resilience and adaptive capacity of response systems need to be strengthened to effectively adapt to climate-related disasters. (Source: ND-GAIN, 2018)


The impacts of climate change vary by country and region. But wherever you are, local-level adaptation projects are necessary. You have all the cards in hand, now go explore our live projects and be one of the good guys.


TAKE ACTION

Tanzania Climate Vulnerability and Readiness (CVRI)

Tanzania’s vulnerability and readiness to combat climate change

graph

This graph ranks a country’s climate performance by measuring its readiness (x-axis) and its vulnerability (y-axis). Both are measured from 0 - 1 (1 being the most ready or most vulnerable). This index combines indicators of a country’s exposure to climate change and others that measure the country’s potential to withstand those shocks. 


Each dot in this plot represents a country. The countries in most urgent situations are on the top left of the graph whilst the most resilient ones stand at the bottom right. 


Tanzania is categorised as a country with high vulnerability to climate change and a low level of adaptation. Climate change is expected to lead to declined rainfall that causes more extreme droughts, thereby threatening the water security of the country. Due to changes in temperature and precipitation patterns, crop yields are expected to decrease significantly, which will result in a severe food crisis, famine and malnutrition. The resilience and adaptive capacity of response systems need to be strengthened to effectively adapt to climate-related disasters. (Source: ND-GAIN, 2018)


The impacts of climate change vary by country and region. But wherever you are, local-level adaptation projects are necessary. You have all the cards in hand, now go explore our live projects and be one of the good guys.


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UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA | ALL PROJECTS

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