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Ethiopia

Ethiopia is the world’s most populous landlocked country, with over 100 million inhabitants. It sits on the Horn of Africa and features incredibly diverse terrain, with vast fertile plains in the west, numerous rivers, extensive forests and the world’s hottest settlement, Dallol (average temperature 34°C).


The country has the highest number of UNESCO World Heritage sites on the continent, the largest mountain range (the Ethiopian Highlands) and the largest cave system (Sof Omar). Some of the oldest remains of modern humans have been found in Ethiopia (those guys lived 195,000 years ago). Ethiopia is considered to be the original motherland in Rastafarian culture and its emperor Hallie Selassie I (who ruled Ethiopia from 1930 to 1974) is the Messiah returned.


Addis Ababa (“The New Flower”), the country’s famous capital, was established in the 15th century and has grown to become one of the most influential metropolises in Africa. It is home to the African Union headquarters and the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa. 


Ethiopia was one of just two nations to maintain its sovereignty from Europeans during the late 19th-century ‘Scramble for Africa’, avoiding a long period of colonialism. It was, however, occupied by Fascist Italy from 1936-41.


The country has seen fast growth over the last few decades. Between 2004 and 2014, the economy has grew at a phenomenal rate of 10.9%. However, the GDP per capita remains one of the lowest in the world. Periods of high inflation and ineffective monetary policy have hindered progression, as has the endemic corruption that impacts socio-economic life. 


The government is working to promote Ethiopia as a manufacturing hub for Africa. The pre-existence of an industrial base, a centralised government and stability after years of struggles has allowed Ethiopia to rise as the newest African tiger.


The question is, can they do it without destroying one of the original Edens of planet Earth?

TOTAL POPULATION

102.4 million YEAR 2014

CO2 EMISSIONS

11,600 kt COUNTRY, YEAR 2014

822,800 kt Sub-Saharan Africa, YEAR 2014

“A 64% reduction from the Business as Usual scenario in 2030.”

PARIS AGREEMENT TARGET

Created by potrace 1.10, written by Peter Selinger 2001-2011

ETHIOPIA | ALL PROJECTS

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john gaffey donated € 12 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Adi Lazos donated € 22 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Juliana Medaglia donated € 20 to Fighting the Silent Disappearance of the Great Brazilian Savannah. FREDERIC ACHARD donated € 50 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Thalita Medaglia donated € 15 to Fighting the Silent Disappearance of the Great Brazilian Savannah. Katie Hereing donated € 25 to Expanding Sesi’s Bottle Refill Scheme to Make Zero Plastic Waste Shopping Mainstream in the UK. Angelica Seminara donated € 10 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Nevena Vlaykova donated € 20 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Melanie Bitto donated € 40 to Application of satellite telemetry data to better understand the breeding strategies of humpback whales in the Southern Hemisphere. 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Yordan Yordanov donated € 25 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Clara Hermansson donated € 40 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Peter Thompson donated € 10 to Environmental Protection through Greenery and Awareness Interventions in Kabul and Wardak. Vihra Dincheva donated € 30 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Kris Bertens donated € 50 to Educating Montenegro's New Generation to Break Free from Litter and Plastic. Anna Lupanova donated € 20 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Simona Dakova donated € 20 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Neicho Rahnev donated € 10 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Pavel Boev donated € 20 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Francesco Zanetto donated € 60 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Hind Alsalloom donated € 50 to Iraqi Youth Climate Change Movement. Francesca Cardani donated € 10 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Michele Frison donated € 5 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Fabio Sai donated € 5 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Paola Tresca donated € 27 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Andrea Mongiello donated € 5 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Yordan Yordanov donated € 25 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Matteo Masi donated € 15 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Massimo Sacco donated € 10 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. 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CLIMATE SIGNIFICANCE

Wars, droughts and economic development have played a large part in reducing Ethiopia’s natural potential and augmenting its vulnerability to climate change.

Hydroelectric plants represent around 88% of the total installed electricity capacity. Ethiopia has access to large rivers which offer excellent hydropower potential.

However, soil erosion, deforestation and biodiversity loss have considerably reduced the country’s agricultural potential. Ethiopia is one of humanity’s cradle of plant domestication. Due to both human (mostly war) and natural factors (mostly drought), the country has experienced famine at various moments in its history.

Ethiopia’s tree cover has gone from 35% in 1900 to 10% in the 21st century. Different economic structures and ways of organising production have had a deep influence over the natural conservation of the country. This is a further proof that humanity is capable of devising new ways of organising labour and that it has a strong influence over the amount, the quality and the footprint of our society.

Binary solutions such as capitalism vs. communism won’t work in this new frame. We need a sustainable future, structured by a sustainable economic model. Ethiopia wants to become Africa’s sustainable grain basket, and it has ideas on how to get there. Explore our projects active in Ethiopia now!

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DATA INSIGHTS

The World Bank categorises Ethiopia is a low-income country. To understand Ethiopia’s situation in the fight against climate change, it is helpful to show its historic carbon emissions and exposure to climate risk. The following plots provide an overview of Ethiopia’s historic greenhouse gas emissions in perspective with global emission levels, as well as the country’s relative vulnerability and preparedness to climate change.

Ethiopia Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Ethiopia’s timeline of total GHG emissions and the percentage change from 1990

This plot combines 3 pieces of information measured from 1990 - 2012: The bar chart indicates the volume of the country’s GHG emissions, the dotted line shows the variation of this volume compared to the baseline 1990, and the full line presents the same variation, but globally.


Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane and fluorocarbons are the main drivers of global warming. Between 1990 and 2012, the world’s emissions grew by 40%.


From 1990 to 2000, Ethiopia experienced a significant emissions increase of 173%, driven by the expansion of agricultural activities and livestock. After its declining between 2000 and 2008, Ethiopia’s emissions stayed relatively stable, at 175% of the 1990 level. The agriculture sector is responsible for the largest share (65%) of the country’s emissions.


In 2012, Ethiopia emitted over 180,000 kilotonnes of CO2 eq. GHG emissions, which is three times more than its neighbouring country Kenya. As the agriculture sector accounts for the majority, it should be a key area of focus to reduce the country’s emissions. (Source: WRI, 2018; World Bank, 2018)

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Ethiopia Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Ethiopia’s timeline of total GHG emissions and the percentage change from 1990

graph

This plot combines 3 pieces of information measured from 1990 - 2012: The bar chart indicates the volume of the country’s GHG emissions, the dotted line shows the variation of this volume compared to the baseline 1990, and the full line presents the same variation, but globally.


Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane and fluorocarbons are the main drivers of global warming. Between 1990 and 2012, the world’s emissions grew by 40%.


From 1990 to 2000, Ethiopia experienced a significant emissions increase of 173%, driven by the expansion of agricultural activities and livestock. After its declining between 2000 and 2008, Ethiopia’s emissions stayed relatively stable, at 175% of the 1990 level. The agriculture sector is responsible for the largest share (65%) of the country’s emissions.


In 2012, Ethiopia emitted over 180,000 kilotonnes of CO2 eq. GHG emissions, which is three times more than its neighbouring country Kenya. As the agriculture sector accounts for the majority, it should be a key area of focus to reduce the country’s emissions. (Source: WRI, 2018; World Bank, 2018)

Ethiopia Climate Vulnerability and Readiness (CVRI)

Ethiopia’s vulnerability and readiness to combat climate change

This graph ranks a country’s climate performance by measuring its readiness (x-axis) and its vulnerability (y-axis). Both are measured from 0 - 1 (1 being the most ready or most vulnerable). This index combines indicators of a country’s exposure to climate change and others that measure the country’s potential to withstand those shocks. 


Each dot in this plot represents a country. The countries in most urgent situations are on the top left of the graph whilst the most resilient ones stand at the bottom right.


Ethiopia is categorised as a country with high vulnerability to climate change impacts and a low level of adaptation capacity. Cereal yields for staple crops such as rice, wheat and maize are forecasted to decline significantly; water resources like groundwater levels are under threat, leading to longer drought periods which can paralyse the agriculture capacity and food security of the country. (Source: ND-GAIN, 2018)


The impacts of climate change vary by country and region. But wherever you are, local-level adaptation projects are necessary. You have all the cards in hand, now go explore our live projects and be one of the good guys.

TAKE ACTION

Ethiopia Climate Vulnerability and Readiness (CVRI)

Ethiopia’s vulnerability and readiness to combat climate change

graph

This graph ranks a country’s climate performance by measuring its readiness (x-axis) and its vulnerability (y-axis). Both are measured from 0 - 1 (1 being the most ready or most vulnerable). This index combines indicators of a country’s exposure to climate change and others that measure the country’s potential to withstand those shocks. 


Each dot in this plot represents a country. The countries in most urgent situations are on the top left of the graph whilst the most resilient ones stand at the bottom right.


Ethiopia is categorised as a country with high vulnerability to climate change impacts and a low level of adaptation capacity. Cereal yields for staple crops such as rice, wheat and maize are forecasted to decline significantly; water resources like groundwater levels are under threat, leading to longer drought periods which can paralyse the agriculture capacity and food security of the country. (Source: ND-GAIN, 2018)


The impacts of climate change vary by country and region. But wherever you are, local-level adaptation projects are necessary. You have all the cards in hand, now go explore our live projects and be one of the good guys.

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ETHIOPIA | ALL PROJECTS

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