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Fiji

The Republic of Fiji, or Matanitu Tugalala o Viti in Fijian, is an archipelago country in Melanesia, which is located in the South Pacific Ocean. It is made up of 330 islands and 550 islets, about a third of which are permanently inhabited. The vast majority of the population lives on the two largest islands Viti Levu and Vanua Levu.


Fiji covers a total area of some 194,000 km² of which around 10% are islands. Fiji is the hub of the South West Pacific, being at the centre of Tonga, Vanuatu, Solomon Islands and the western countries. This has had a great influence over the Fijian national identity which incorporates elements of Tongan, Tuvaluan, Chinese, and Indian cultures. 57% of the population is of Polynesian or mixed Melanesian/Polynesian heritage. 

 

The climate in Fiji is tropical marine and warm all year round with minimal extremes. Generally speaking, Pacific islands are exposed to frequent rain but not so many hurricanes, although Winston, the very first category 5 hurricanes in Fijian history made landfall in 2016. 

 

With more natural resources than its Pacific neighbours, the Fijian economy is fairly diversified trading sugar, fish, gold and light manufacturing products. Tourism accounts for $300 million, twice as much as garments and sugar cane, which are the country’s second and third largest industries. 


The British established a colonial regime between 1874 until 1970, the year of the country’s independence. Since its independence, it has known 4 coups resulting from ethnic tensions between inhabitants.


Citing corruption in the government, Commodore Josaia Voreqe (Frank) Bainimarama, Commander of the Republic of Fiji Military Forces, staged a military takeover on 5 December 2006. “The Commodore” has been in power since. 


Fiji was the host of the COP23 in 2017 and has made it clear that they require a global effort to protect resources which are extremely important to the country. It has started to assess and adapt to climate change, but the problems it faces requires a multilateral and collaborative solution.


TOTAL POPULATION

0.88 million YEAR 2014

CO2 EMISSIONS

1,200 kt COUNTRY, YEAR 2014

14,272,100 kt East Asia and Pacific, YEAR 2014

“A conditional 30% reduction in GHG emissions and 100% renewable electricity by 2030.” 


PARIS AGREEMENT TARGET

Created by potrace 1.10, written by Peter Selinger 2001-2011

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john gaffey donated € 12 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Adi Lazos donated € 22 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Juliana Medaglia donated € 20 to Fighting the Silent Disappearance of the Great Brazilian Savannah. FREDERIC ACHARD donated € 50 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Thalita Medaglia donated € 15 to Fighting the Silent Disappearance of the Great Brazilian Savannah. Katie Hereing donated € 25 to Expanding Sesi’s Bottle Refill Scheme to Make Zero Plastic Waste Shopping Mainstream in the UK. Angelica Seminara donated € 10 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Nevena Vlaykova donated € 20 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Melanie Bitto donated € 40 to Application of satellite telemetry data to better understand the breeding strategies of humpback whales in the Southern Hemisphere. Cristiano Rocco Marra donated € 30 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Ro Leaver donated € 30 to Expanding Sesi’s Bottle Refill Scheme to Make Zero Plastic Waste Shopping Mainstream in the UK. Phili Denning donated € 25 to Expanding Sesi’s Bottle Refill Scheme to Make Zero Plastic Waste Shopping Mainstream in the UK. Isabel gregory donated € 20 to Expanding Sesi’s Bottle Refill Scheme to Make Zero Plastic Waste Shopping Mainstream in the UK. Akshay Pai donated € 50 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Emma Burnett donated € 50 to Expanding Sesi’s Bottle Refill Scheme to Make Zero Plastic Waste Shopping Mainstream in the UK. Boyan Mihaylov donated € 50 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. François Leclerc donated € 40 to Application of satellite telemetry data to better understand the breeding strategies of humpback whales in the Southern Hemisphere. Yordan Yordanov donated € 25 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Clara Hermansson donated € 40 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Peter Thompson donated € 10 to Environmental Protection through Greenery and Awareness Interventions in Kabul and Wardak. Vihra Dincheva donated € 30 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Kris Bertens donated € 50 to Educating Montenegro's New Generation to Break Free from Litter and Plastic. Anna Lupanova donated € 20 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Simona Dakova donated € 20 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Neicho Rahnev donated € 10 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Pavel Boev donated € 20 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Francesco Zanetto donated € 60 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Hind Alsalloom donated € 50 to Iraqi Youth Climate Change Movement. Francesca Cardani donated € 10 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Michele Frison donated € 5 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Fabio Sai donated € 5 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Paola Tresca donated € 27 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Andrea Mongiello donated € 5 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Yordan Yordanov donated € 25 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Matteo Masi donated € 15 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Massimo Sacco donated € 10 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Ananda Nidhi donated € 20 to Toranam: Strengthening Agroforestry in Andhra Pradesh. andrea borsetto donated € 15 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. ALESSIO GIANNONI donated € 25 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Yordan Yordanov donated € 25 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Laura Zorzetto donated € 15 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Rossana Mattachini donated € 20 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Elsa De Grandi donated € 5 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Noah Silver donated € 15 to Empowering Mangrove Women for a Healthy & Resilient Ecosystem. Noah Silver donated € 15 to Expanding Sesi’s Bottle Refill Scheme to Make Zero Plastic Waste Shopping Mainstream in the UK. 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CLIMATE SIGNIFICANCE

A large number of Fijian islets are at risk of washing into the sea. Soil erosion and rapid sea-level rise could affect more than half of the islands that make up the archipelago. The majority of the land is, however, on volcanic islands that rise to well over 1,000 meters in elevation.

Fijian cultures places great value on the vanua, the land to which they belong. It hosts an impressive selection of birds and lizards. The fantastic musk parrot cohabitates with the crested iguana, one of the (critically endangered) symbols of the country. The aptly-named Rainbow Coral reef and its 1,200 fish species are also located within Fijian territorial waters and ensure massive fish resources. However, coral bleaching has already reduced the size of global coral reefs by at least 50%.

The island’s extensive timber, rich soils, mineral deposits also provide means of economic development but also heightens the risk of exploitation and natural destruction on an island that needs to be very carefully managed to stay within the viability thresholds. 

Human development has gone down in the Fiji islands, despite a steady growth in its economy. Sustainable action can maintain Fijians’ living standards and even offer new alleys of development in fishing, tourism and agriculture, just to name a few.

Fiji, alongside its neighbouring islands in the Pacific, is taking an aggressive stance on climate change. People have observed the change in their ocean. A change that has become visible over the span of a single human generation. 


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DATA INSIGHTS

The World Bank classifies Fiji as an upper middle-income country. To understand Fiji’s situation with regards to climate change, its history of carbon emissions and exposure to climate risk over time are insightful. The following graphs show Fiji’s historic greenhouse gas emissions in perspective with global emission levels, as well as the country’s relative vulnerability and preparedness to climate change.

Fiji Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Fiji’s timeline of total GHG emissions and the percentage change since 1990

This plot combines 3 pieces of information measured from 1990 - 2012: The bar chart indicates the volume of the country’s GHG emissions, the full line shows the variation of this volume compared to the baseline 1990, and the dotted line presents the same variation, but globally.


Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane and fluorocarbons are the main drivers of global warming. Between 1990 and 2012, the world’s emissions grew by 40%.


At -32% compared to 1990 levels in 2000, Fiji saw its emissions bounce back between 2000 - 2008. This sharp increasing trend was due to a rise in the use of imported fossil fuels. Back at equal levels in 2009, it has since then managed to curb slightly its emissions (-3%). Fiji’s emissions represent less than 0.1% of global emissions both in 2018 and historically.


In Fiji, the energy sector is the leading source of emissions accounting for 48% of total emissions, followed by the agriculture sector (40%). Fiji’s energy emissions are dominated by the use of fossil fuels in transportation and electricity generation. 


To reduce the country’s emissions, Fiji requires governmental action such as shifting the fossil-fuel dominated system towards renewable energy solutions and improving agricultural management. (Source: WRI, 2018; World bank, 2018)


TAKE ACTION

Fiji Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Fiji’s timeline of total GHG emissions and the percentage change since 1990

graph

This plot combines 3 pieces of information measured from 1990 - 2012: The bar chart indicates the volume of the country’s GHG emissions, the full line shows the variation of this volume compared to the baseline 1990, and the dotted line presents the same variation, but globally.


Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane and fluorocarbons are the main drivers of global warming. Between 1990 and 2012, the world’s emissions grew by 40%.


At -32% compared to 1990 levels in 2000, Fiji saw its emissions bounce back between 2000 - 2008. This sharp increasing trend was due to a rise in the use of imported fossil fuels. Back at equal levels in 2009, it has since then managed to curb slightly its emissions (-3%). Fiji’s emissions represent less than 0.1% of global emissions both in 2018 and historically.


In Fiji, the energy sector is the leading source of emissions accounting for 48% of total emissions, followed by the agriculture sector (40%). Fiji’s energy emissions are dominated by the use of fossil fuels in transportation and electricity generation. 


To reduce the country’s emissions, Fiji requires governmental action such as shifting the fossil-fuel dominated system towards renewable energy solutions and improving agricultural management. (Source: WRI, 2018; World bank, 2018)


Fiji Climate Vulnerability and Readiness (CVRI)

Fiji’s vulnerability and readiness to combat climate change

This graph ranks a country’s climate performance by measuring its readiness (x-axis) and its vulnerability (y-axis). Both are measured from 0 - 1 (1 being the most ready or most vulnerable). This index combines indicators of a country’s exposure to climate change and others that measure the country’s potential to withstand those shocks. 


Each dot in this plot represents a country. The countries in most urgent situations are on the top left of the graph whilst the most resilient ones stand at the bottom right. 


Fiji is categorized as a country with high vulnerability and fairly effective responsiveness to climate change. However, there is a greater need to strengthen the adaptation capacity. Rice and wheat production are forecasted to decline significantly under projected climate change. Decrease in precipitation due to climate change is expected to lead to longer drought periods, which can paralyse the agriculture capacity and food security of the country. This island nation is also threatened by sea-level rise and hurricanes due to reduced natural defences damaged by deforestation and coral bleaching. (Source: ND-GAIN, 2018)


The impacts of climate change vary by country and region. But wherever you are, local-level adaptation projects are necessary. You have all the cards in hand, now go explore our live projects and be one of the good guys. 


TAKE ACTION

Fiji Climate Vulnerability and Readiness (CVRI)

Fiji’s vulnerability and readiness to combat climate change

graph

This graph ranks a country’s climate performance by measuring its readiness (x-axis) and its vulnerability (y-axis). Both are measured from 0 - 1 (1 being the most ready or most vulnerable). This index combines indicators of a country’s exposure to climate change and others that measure the country’s potential to withstand those shocks. 


Each dot in this plot represents a country. The countries in most urgent situations are on the top left of the graph whilst the most resilient ones stand at the bottom right. 


Fiji is categorized as a country with high vulnerability and fairly effective responsiveness to climate change. However, there is a greater need to strengthen the adaptation capacity. Rice and wheat production are forecasted to decline significantly under projected climate change. Decrease in precipitation due to climate change is expected to lead to longer drought periods, which can paralyse the agriculture capacity and food security of the country. This island nation is also threatened by sea-level rise and hurricanes due to reduced natural defences damaged by deforestation and coral bleaching. (Source: ND-GAIN, 2018)


The impacts of climate change vary by country and region. But wherever you are, local-level adaptation projects are necessary. You have all the cards in hand, now go explore our live projects and be one of the good guys. 


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