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Montenegro

Montenegro is a small Southeastern Balkan country on the coast of the Adriatic sea. Montenegro has an area of 13,812 km²  (as big as the Bahamas, or Paris) and shares borders with Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Kosovo, and Albania.


The mountains of Montenegro include some of the most rugged terrains in Europe, averaging more than 2,000m in elevation. Montenegro is a mountainous country (its name literally means “Black Mountain”), with the Bobotov Kuk standing as the highest peak (2,523 m). Its climate oscillates between Mediterranean and continental according to the elevation.


In 1878, the Treaty of Berlin, which fixed the frontiers in the Balkan Peninsula following the Russian victory over the Ottoman empires, defined the limits of Montenegro at the same time it recognised its independence.


In 1911, it then joined the Yugoslav Kingdom (then socialist Republic) of which it would remain a part until its demise. After expanding its autonomy to monetary policies and other regal prerogatives, its independence as a sovereign state was voted in a tight referendum in 2006. 


Montenegro is the third most recent country on the planet. After a period of economic deterioration following the breakdown of Yugoslavia, Montenegro bounced back. Its GDP per capita is about half of the average of the EU. Montenegro is an exporter of metals, wood and banking services, essentially to its Balkan and Italian neighbours. 


With its newly found independence, Montenegro can and wants to take part in the fight against climate change, for its own good as for its neighbours and the rest of the world. 


TOTAL POPULATION

0.62 million YEAR 2014

CO2 EMISSIONS

2,200 kt COUNTRY, YEAR 2014

6,245,900 kt Europe and Central Asia, YEAR 2014

“A 30% reduction in emissions by 2030 compared to 1990 levels.”

PARIS AGREEMENT TARGET

Created by potrace 1.10, written by Peter Selinger 2001-2011

MONTENEGRO | ALL PROJECTS

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Andreyana Andreeva-Florian donated € 40 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. joe hasell donated € 20 to Expanding Sesi’s Bottle Refill Scheme to Make Zero Plastic Waste Shopping Mainstream in the UK. Milena Ivanova donated € 60 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Angel Georgiev donated € 50 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Bozhana Zagorcheva donated € 5 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Leonardo Gaffuri donated € 5 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Gianmarco Gallo donated € 30 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. anna minerva donated € 50 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. marta tosi donated € 50 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Ildiko Milanovich donated € 50 to K'uxiub'al: Sustainable Energy for Healthy Families in San Andrés Itzapa. Ildiko Milanovich donated € 70 to Building an Efficient Technology for Women's Economic Empowerment. Ildiko Milanovich donated € 50 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Ildiko Milanovich donated € 50 to Expanding Sesi’s Bottle Refill Scheme to Make Zero Plastic Waste Shopping Mainstream in the UK. Robert Eckstein donated € 5 to Green Summit: Supporting Young People in Smaller Communities. Mariya Markova donated € 50 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Francesca Devoto donated € 50 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. john gaffey donated € 12 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Adi Lazos donated € 22 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Juliana Medaglia donated € 20 to Fighting the Silent Disappearance of the Great Brazilian Savannah. FREDERIC ACHARD donated € 50 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Thalita Medaglia donated € 15 to Fighting the Silent Disappearance of the Great Brazilian Savannah. Katie Hereing donated € 25 to Expanding Sesi’s Bottle Refill Scheme to Make Zero Plastic Waste Shopping Mainstream in the UK. Angelica Seminara donated € 10 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Nevena Vlaykova donated € 20 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Melanie Bitto donated € 40 to Application of satellite telemetry data to better understand the breeding strategies of humpback whales in the Southern Hemisphere. Cristiano Rocco Marra donated € 30 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Ro Leaver donated € 30 to Expanding Sesi’s Bottle Refill Scheme to Make Zero Plastic Waste Shopping Mainstream in the UK. Phili Denning donated € 25 to Expanding Sesi’s Bottle Refill Scheme to Make Zero Plastic Waste Shopping Mainstream in the UK. Isabel gregory donated € 20 to Expanding Sesi’s Bottle Refill Scheme to Make Zero Plastic Waste Shopping Mainstream in the UK. Akshay Pai donated € 50 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Emma Burnett donated € 50 to Expanding Sesi’s Bottle Refill Scheme to Make Zero Plastic Waste Shopping Mainstream in the UK. Boyan Mihaylov donated € 50 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. François Leclerc donated € 40 to Application of satellite telemetry data to better understand the breeding strategies of humpback whales in the Southern Hemisphere. Yordan Yordanov donated € 25 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Clara Hermansson donated € 40 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Peter Thompson donated € 10 to Environmental Protection through Greenery and Awareness Interventions in Kabul and Wardak. Vihra Dincheva donated € 30 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Kris Bertens donated € 50 to Educating Montenegro's New Generation to Break Free from Litter and Plastic. Anna Lupanova donated € 20 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Simona Dakova donated € 20 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Neicho Rahnev donated € 10 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Pavel Boev donated € 20 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Francesco Zanetto donated € 60 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Hind Alsalloom donated € 50 to Iraqi Youth Climate Change Movement. Francesca Cardani donated € 10 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Michele Frison donated € 5 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Fabio Sai donated € 5 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Paola Tresca donated € 27 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Andrea Mongiello donated € 5 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Yordan Yordanov donated € 25 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas.

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CLIMATE SIGNIFICANCE

Montenegro describes the evergreen forests that cover its peaks. Forests cover more than 60 % of the total territory and protected areas represent 11% of the territory. Located centrally in Montenegro is Biogradska Gora, a protected area since 1878, which houses one of the last three virgin forests in the world, measuring 1,600 acres. 

Montenegro is part of the Mediterranean biodiversity hotspot. Its flora-species-to-area ratio is of 0.837, which is the highest in all of Europe. It counts thousands of flora and fauna including large mammals such as bears and wolves. Its high altitude mountains act as a conservatory for species across the Balkans and the Mediterranean. 350 different types of insects and 3 different varieties of trouts are found in the Biogradska Gora forest alone.

With the warming of the sea and atmosphere, invasive or displaced species are already impacting the country’s ecological balance and agricultural output. It is estimated that agriculture and tourism, both key sectors of the Montenegrin economy, will be impacted by climate change.

Still, Montenegro is committed to mitigating these impacts. Between 20 – 37 % of its energy comes from renewable sources, mainly hydropower. In fact, two installations, a coal power plant and an aluminium factory represent as much as 90% of the country’s total GHG emissions!

Montenegro has to build a national and macroeconomic (performance and behaviour of the economy as a whole) vision that encompasses the new challenges of climate change. Its black mountains, evergreen forests and colourful flowers require it from them, and from us. 

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DATA INSIGHTS

Montenegro is classified as an upper-middle-income country by the World Bank.  To get a sense of Montenegro’s position in the fight against climate change, it is vital to observe its history of carbon emissions and exposure to climate risk.  The following plots give a historical overview of Montenegro’s CO2 emissions in perspective with global emission levels, as well as the country’s climate action and sustainability performance.

Montenegro CO2 Emissions

Montenegro’s timeline of total CO2 emissions and the percentage change since 2007

This plot combines 3 pieces of information measured from 2007 - 2012: The bar chart indicates the volume of the country’s CO2 emissions, the full line shows the variation of this volume compared to the baseline 2007, and the dotted line presents the same variation, but globally.


Carbon dioxide is the main driver of global warming. Between 1990 and 2012, the world’s emissions grew by 14%.


Between 2007 and 2008, Montenegro’s emissions increased by 22% before dropping spectacularly by 41% the next year. Montenegro's emissions vary significantly during the observed period due to its economic fluctuations, which altered its energy consumption, economic production and general activity. Overall, Montenegro’s GHG emissions have progressed by 4% between 2007 and 2012.


The energy sector is responsible for the largest share (66%) of Montenegro’s emissions, mainly driven by electricity and heat production. This is primarily due to a high dependency on fossil fuel energy generation (account for 65% of Montenegro’s electricity production). To reduce its energy-related emissions, Montenegro requires further efforts to step up investments in renewable energy and phase out investments in fossil fuels. (Source: WRI, 2018; World Bank, 2018; UNFCC, 2013)


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Montenegro CO2 Emissions

Montenegro’s timeline of total CO2 emissions and the percentage change since 2007

graph

This plot combines 3 pieces of information measured from 2007 - 2012: The bar chart indicates the volume of the country’s CO2 emissions, the full line shows the variation of this volume compared to the baseline 2007, and the dotted line presents the same variation, but globally.


Carbon dioxide is the main driver of global warming. Between 1990 and 2012, the world’s emissions grew by 14%.


Between 2007 and 2008, Montenegro’s emissions increased by 22% before dropping spectacularly by 41% the next year. Montenegro's emissions vary significantly during the observed period due to its economic fluctuations, which altered its energy consumption, economic production and general activity. Overall, Montenegro’s GHG emissions have progressed by 4% between 2007 and 2012.


The energy sector is responsible for the largest share (66%) of Montenegro’s emissions, mainly driven by electricity and heat production. This is primarily due to a high dependency on fossil fuel energy generation (account for 65% of Montenegro’s electricity production). To reduce its energy-related emissions, Montenegro requires further efforts to step up investments in renewable energy and phase out investments in fossil fuels. (Source: WRI, 2018; World Bank, 2018; UNFCC, 2013)


Montenegro Sustainable Development Goals Index (SDGI)

Montenego’s performance on sustainable development

The SDG Index describes a country’s progress towards achieving the 17 Sustainable Development Goals. The SDGI combines indicators of climate action with other socio-economic development measures that contextualise a country’s environmental performance with the rest of its challenges and reality.

The global SDG Index score can be interpreted as the percentage of achievement of the goals. 


Each dot in the plot represents a country and its score (y-axis). Countries at the bottom score lower on the index as the countries at the top. Sweden currently scores the highest at 85 and the Central African Republic scores lowest at 38.


Montenegro’s score 68 is below the average of Southern European countries, and Montenegro is among the few European countries to receive an SDGI score below 70. Montenegro performs well in the domain of renewable and affordable energy as a result of reducing CO2 emissions from fuel combustion. However, the country still falls short of addressing many aspects of sustainable development. This is mainly because Montenegro performs poorly on measures like promoting sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems and increasing research and development investment for further economic growth. (Source: SDGI, 2018) 


The impacts of climate change vary by country and region. But wherever you are, local-level adaptation projects are necessary. You have all the cards in hand, now go explore our live projects and be one of the good guys.


TAKE ACTION

Montenegro Sustainable Development Goals Index (SDGI)

Montenego’s performance on sustainable development

graph

The SDG Index describes a country’s progress towards achieving the 17 Sustainable Development Goals. The SDGI combines indicators of climate action with other socio-economic development measures that contextualise a country’s environmental performance with the rest of its challenges and reality.

The global SDG Index score can be interpreted as the percentage of achievement of the goals. 


Each dot in the plot represents a country and its score (y-axis). Countries at the bottom score lower on the index as the countries at the top. Sweden currently scores the highest at 85 and the Central African Republic scores lowest at 38.


Montenegro’s score 68 is below the average of Southern European countries, and Montenegro is among the few European countries to receive an SDGI score below 70. Montenegro performs well in the domain of renewable and affordable energy as a result of reducing CO2 emissions from fuel combustion. However, the country still falls short of addressing many aspects of sustainable development. This is mainly because Montenegro performs poorly on measures like promoting sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems and increasing research and development investment for further economic growth. (Source: SDGI, 2018) 


The impacts of climate change vary by country and region. But wherever you are, local-level adaptation projects are necessary. You have all the cards in hand, now go explore our live projects and be one of the good guys.


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