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Oceans

Oceans encompass all that touch on the great cycle of water and all the expressions in which this manifests. Whether it’s ice-cold or steaming-hot, salty or fresh, underground, on the surface or vaporised in the form of a gas, water in all its forms is a key theme of climate action.


Water is life on this planet. The only places where life struggles to get a hold is where water is inexistent. Even on top of mountains, even on the frozen poles, even at the bottom of the ocean, where pressure and light are closer to values from other planets than ours, life has sparked. In deserts, however, not many organisms survive the blaze and the lack of H2O.


Oceans are among the largest forces at play on our planet. Their sheer size, depth and influence over our planet’s climate and general health. Since the dawn of time, they have provided food and ways of communication for humans to survive and interact with each other.


The magic doesn’t stop at the shoreline. These unfathomable bodies of water are fed by a network of capillaries, veins and arteries: rivers. While only representing a fraction of all water on the planet, fresh water is what makes this planet a sweet spot for life. Along with Oxygen, Carbon and Italian ice cream, of course.


The ubiquity of water and its silent dominance over all life sometimes make us forget just how precious it is. It’s ridiculously precious. It requires care, monitoring, studying and protecting, just like all the things that exist in, around and above it.


OCEANS | ALL PROJECTS

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john gaffey donated € 12 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Adi Lazos donated € 22 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Juliana Medaglia donated € 20 to Fighting the Silent Disappearance of the Great Brazilian Savannah. FREDERIC ACHARD donated € 50 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Thalita Medaglia donated € 15 to Fighting the Silent Disappearance of the Great Brazilian Savannah. Katie Hereing donated € 25 to Expanding Sesi’s Bottle Refill Scheme to Make Zero Plastic Waste Shopping Mainstream in the UK. Angelica Seminara donated € 10 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Nevena Vlaykova donated € 20 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Melanie Bitto donated € 40 to Application of satellite telemetry data to better understand the breeding strategies of humpback whales in the Southern Hemisphere. Cristiano Rocco Marra donated € 30 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Ro Leaver donated € 30 to Expanding Sesi’s Bottle Refill Scheme to Make Zero Plastic Waste Shopping Mainstream in the UK. Phili Denning donated € 25 to Expanding Sesi’s Bottle Refill Scheme to Make Zero Plastic Waste Shopping Mainstream in the UK. Isabel gregory donated € 20 to Expanding Sesi’s Bottle Refill Scheme to Make Zero Plastic Waste Shopping Mainstream in the UK. Akshay Pai donated € 50 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Emma Burnett donated € 50 to Expanding Sesi’s Bottle Refill Scheme to Make Zero Plastic Waste Shopping Mainstream in the UK. Boyan Mihaylov donated € 50 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. François Leclerc donated € 40 to Application of satellite telemetry data to better understand the breeding strategies of humpback whales in the Southern Hemisphere. Yordan Yordanov donated € 25 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Clara Hermansson donated € 40 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Peter Thompson donated € 10 to Environmental Protection through Greenery and Awareness Interventions in Kabul and Wardak. Vihra Dincheva donated € 30 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Kris Bertens donated € 50 to Educating Montenegro's New Generation to Break Free from Litter and Plastic. Anna Lupanova donated € 20 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Simona Dakova donated € 20 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Neicho Rahnev donated € 10 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Pavel Boev donated € 20 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Francesco Zanetto donated € 60 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Hind Alsalloom donated € 50 to Iraqi Youth Climate Change Movement. Francesca Cardani donated € 10 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Michele Frison donated € 5 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Fabio Sai donated € 5 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Paola Tresca donated € 27 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Andrea Mongiello donated € 5 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Yordan Yordanov donated € 25 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Matteo Masi donated € 15 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Massimo Sacco donated € 10 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Ananda Nidhi donated € 20 to Toranam: Strengthening Agroforestry in Andhra Pradesh. andrea borsetto donated € 15 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. ALESSIO GIANNONI donated € 25 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Yordan Yordanov donated € 25 to The Bedechka Case: Fighting the Neglect of Green Urban Areas. Laura Zorzetto donated € 15 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Rossana Mattachini donated € 20 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Elsa De Grandi donated € 5 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Noah Silver donated € 15 to Empowering Mangrove Women for a Healthy & Resilient Ecosystem. Noah Silver donated € 15 to Expanding Sesi’s Bottle Refill Scheme to Make Zero Plastic Waste Shopping Mainstream in the UK. Noah Silver donated € 15 to Agro Eco Village Project in Ri-Bhoi District. Noah Silver donated € 15 to Building an Efficient Technology for Women's Economic Empowerment. Noah Silver donated € 15 to Strengthening Malian Forest Management to Protect Biodiversity and Alleviate Poverty. Noah Silver donated € 30 to Toxic Chemicals and Waste Sensitization for Vulnerable Communities. Stefania Butera donated € 25 to CROWDFOREST: Making Reforestation Faster and Free through Unmanned Aerial Vehicles.

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PROBLEMS TO SOLVE

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DATA INSIGHTS

MARINE PROTECTED AREAS (MPAs)

PERCENTAGE OF MPA WITHIN A COUNTRY TERRITORIAL WATERS

The MPA Score measures what percentage of a country exclusive economic zone (the area of sea that belongs economically to a country) is protected by a form of preservation zone. This indicator helps to assess the level of protection and sustainable management of marine ecosystems in each country.


Each dot in the plot represents a country and its MPA score (Y-axis) on a scale from 0-100, with 100 being the best score and 0 being the worst. Countries at the bottom have less marine protected areas coverage when compared to the countries at the top of the plot.


Globally, there are around 14,688 MPAs covering an area of 14.9 million km² making up 10.1% of the global marine ecosystem. Although nearly 99% of countries have established more than 50% of national marine areas under effective protection, a few countries, such as Haiti, lag far behind the world in establishing MPAs.


These countries have made little progress in recent years towards MPA implementation, often due to their environmental governance challenges, including poverty and political instability. Since successful marine protected areas can ensure sustainable fisheries and food security, more MPAs need to implement, especially in the countries where the need for conservation is most urgent. (Source: EPI, 2018 )

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MARINE PROTECTED AREAS (MPAs)

PERCENTAGE OF MPA WITHIN A COUNTRY TERRITORIAL WATERS

Graph

The MPA Score measures what percentage of a country exclusive economic zone (the area of sea that belongs economically to a country) is protected by a form of preservation zone. This indicator helps to assess the level of protection and sustainable management of marine ecosystems in each country.


Each dot in the plot represents a country and its MPA score (Y-axis) on a scale from 0-100, with 100 being the best score and 0 being the worst. Countries at the bottom have less marine protected areas coverage when compared to the countries at the top of the plot.


Globally, there are around 14,688 MPAs covering an area of 14.9 million km² making up 10.1% of the global marine ecosystem. Although nearly 99% of countries have established more than 50% of national marine areas under effective protection, a few countries, such as Haiti, lag far behind the world in establishing MPAs.


These countries have made little progress in recent years towards MPA implementation, often due to their environmental governance challenges, including poverty and political instability. Since successful marine protected areas can ensure sustainable fisheries and food security, more MPAs need to implement, especially in the countries where the need for conservation is most urgent. (Source: EPI, 2018 )

Level of water stress

EFFICIENCY OF FRESH WATER RESOURCES AGAINST WATER SCARCITY

The level of water stress indicates the ratio of freshwater withdrawal by major sectors (i.e. agriculture, manufacturing, construction and energy) to available freshwater resources. This indicator helps to monitor SDG Target 6.4 – Water Use and Scarcity. Each bar in the plot represents a regional water stress score (X-axis) on a percentage scale, 0% being no freshwater demand and 100% or higher indicates situations where freshwater demand (withdrawn by major economic sectors) exceeds total available freshwater resource.


Although Oceania has a low availability of fresh water resource, it has the lowest level of water stress (2%) due to low population density. Sub-Saharan Africa, one of the world’s driest regions, is the second least water-stressed region (3%) because of its low water-intensive economy. All Asian subcontinents face severe freshwater stress, led by Central Asia (79%), Western Asia (65%), Southern Asia (49%) and Eastern Asia (30%).


Due to its high population density and water-intensive economy, especially in agriculture (cotton, rice, wheat and vegetables), Asia has considerably higher freshwater demands compared to other regions. Northern Africa is the only region withdrawing more than 100% of their available freshwater resources. This occurs mainly because of the overexploitation of freshwater resources triggered by growing (and inadequate) demand on the side of agriculture and energy sectors. This results in the rapid depletion of freshwater sources as seen most direly in the Aral Sea in Central Asia for example. (Source: SDG 6.4, 2018, AQUASTAT, 2018)

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Level of water stress

EFFICIENCY OF FRESH WATER RESOURCES AGAINST WATER SCARCITY

Graph

The level of water stress indicates the ratio of freshwater withdrawal by major sectors (i.e. agriculture, manufacturing, construction and energy) to available freshwater resources. This indicator helps to monitor SDG Target 6.4 – Water Use and Scarcity. Each bar in the plot represents a regional water stress score (X-axis) on a percentage scale, 0% being no freshwater demand and 100% or higher indicates situations where freshwater demand (withdrawn by major economic sectors) exceeds total available freshwater resource.


Although Oceania has a low availability of fresh water resource, it has the lowest level of water stress (2%) due to low population density. Sub-Saharan Africa, one of the world’s driest regions, is the second least water-stressed region (3%) because of its low water-intensive economy. All Asian subcontinents face severe freshwater stress, led by Central Asia (79%), Western Asia (65%), Southern Asia (49%) and Eastern Asia (30%).


Due to its high population density and water-intensive economy, especially in agriculture (cotton, rice, wheat and vegetables), Asia has considerably higher freshwater demands compared to other regions. Northern Africa is the only region withdrawing more than 100% of their available freshwater resources. This occurs mainly because of the overexploitation of freshwater resources triggered by growing (and inadequate) demand on the side of agriculture and energy sectors. This results in the rapid depletion of freshwater sources as seen most direly in the Aral Sea in Central Asia for example. (Source: SDG 6.4, 2018, AQUASTAT, 2018)

COUNTRY HOTSPOTS

These are the countries where this theme is particularly important and
need most pressing action. Discover the hotspots.

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