Glossary

Downstream transportation and distribution emissions (Scope 3 Category 9)

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Summary
Scope 3 Category 9 measures GHG emissions from transporting and distributing products from the organisation to the end customer, including outsourced logistics and warehousing.

Downstream transportation and distribution emissions, defined as Scope 3 Category 9 in the GHG Protocol Corporate Value Chain Standard, refer to the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions resulting from the transportation and distribution of sold products. 

This category encompasses emissions from the movement of goods from the organisation to the end customer, including any interim storage facilities​​.

Downstream transportation and distribution emissions, defined as Scope 3 Category 9 in the GHG Protocol Corporate Value Chain Standard, refer to the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions resulting from the transportation and distribution of sold products. This category encompasses emissions from the movement of goods from the organisation to the end customer, including any interim storage facilities​​.

The emissions included in this category are those from:

  1. Transportation of finished goods: Emissions from the transport vehicles (e.g., trucks, ships, aeroplanes) used after the manufacturing stage to move products to the final customer or retail locations.
  2. Outsourced logistics operations: The associated emissions still fall under this category if the organisation outsources these transportation and distribution activities to third parties​​.
  3. Warehousing and storage: Emissions associated with the temporary storage of goods during distribution, whether at facilities owned by the company or third-party logistics providers.
  4. End-stage delivery vehicles: Includes emissions from the final delivery vehicles, which may differ in nature and efficiency compared to long-haul transportation methods.

This categorisation does not include upstream transportation and distribution, which is covered under a different scope category, nor does it account for emissions related to the return of products from the customer, whether for warranty, repair, or recycling purposes​​.

To broaden the scope, read our guide about ESG reporting fundamentals.

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