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What is "Fit for 55"?

  • At the end of June 2021, the European Union (EU) decided on the new European Climate Law that targets a 55% decrease in Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 2030.
  • With "Fit for 55", the European Commission presented its plan to achieve those reduction goals on 14 July 2021. The package was completed and implemented in October 2023.  
  • The Fit for 55 packages are proposals that strengthen existing legislation and introduce new initiatives. It aims to ensure that EU policies align with the climate goals the European Council and the European Parliament agreed upon.
  • The legislation package presents five new initiatives across various policy areas and economic sectors: climate, energy and fuels, transport, buildings, land use and forestry. The latest climate target and the Fit for 55 packages are critical components of the European Union's green growth strategy – the European Green Deal.

What are the initiatives under "Fit for 55"?

L'expansion du système d'échange de quotas d'émissions

  • A vital element of the package is to build on the essential achievements of the EU Emission Trading System (ETS) by strengthening and applying it to new sectors.
  • The ETS is a key EU instrument for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the industrial and energy sectors. It currently covers around 40% of emissions in the EU.
  • Actuellement, les secteurs couverts par le Système d'échange de quotas d'émission de l'UE (EU ETS) sont :
    • Energy-intensive industry sectors (e.g. Oil refineries, steel industry, cement, glass and paper production)
    • Puissance / Production d'électricité et de chaleur
    • Aviation commerciale (vols au sein de l'Espace économique européen)
  • En avril 2023, le Conseil de l'UE a adopté des réformes du SEQE et de nouvelles politiques qui élargissent le champ d'application du SEQE de l'UE pour inclure :
    • Émissions du transport maritime (les obligations pour les compagnies maritimes de restituer des quotas seront introduites progressivement : 40 % pour les émissions vérifiées à partir de 2024, 70 % à partir de 2025 et 100 % à partir de 2026).
    • Un nouveau système d'ETS distinct pour les bâtiments, le transport routier et des secteurs supplémentaires (principalement les petites industries) : Le nouveau système s'appliquera aux distributeurs qui fournissent des carburants aux bâtiments, au transport routier et à des secteurs supplémentaires à partir de 2027.
  • Ces mesures comprendront l'introduction de taxes sur les carburants de navigation et d'aviation, l'élimination progressive de facto des voitures essence et diesel d'ici 2035, ainsi que de nouvelles taxes sur les émissions liées au chauffage et à l'isolation des bâtiments.

Mécanisme d’ajustement carbone aux frontières (CBAM)

  • Suppose international partners do not share a similar ambition to the EU. In that case, there is a risk of carbon leakage whereby production is transferred from the EU to other countries with lower ambitions for emission reduction.
  • The European Commission proposed the Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM) to prevent this. The CBAM is an environmental policy designed to apply the exact carbon costs to imported products as would be incurred by installations operating in the EU.
  • Under CBAM, companies must buy carbon credits at prices that mirror those paid by the European industry. As of 1 October 2023, CBAM is active and requires importers to take action for its first phase. This first reporting period for importers ends on 31 January 2024.

Fonds social pour le climat

  • The Commission proposes a new Social Climate Fund to promote fairness and solidarity between and within the Member States while mitigating energy and mobility poverty risks.
  • Between 2025 and 2032, the Social Climate Fund will contribute €72.2 billion in current prices to the EU budget from the new Emissions Trading System.
  • It will enable the Member States to support vulnerable low—and middle-income households, transport users, and micro-enterprises affected by the impact of extending emission trading to buildings and transport.

À quoi faut-il s'attendre pour la suite ?

  • The “Fit for 55” package was formally adopted in October 2023, and its implementation has begun in Member States.

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